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Age-Related and Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: Central Consequences in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus  

Ruili Xie, Tessa-Jonne F. Ropp, Michael R. Kasten, and Paul B. Manis

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Hearing loss generally occurs in the auditory periphery but leads to changes in the central auditory system. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and age-related hearing loss (ARHL) affect ... More

Autoantibodies and Neuropathic Pain  

John M. Dawes and David L. Bennett

A number of clinical studies indicated an association between autoantibodies and neuropathic pain. This is supported by the observation that immunotherapies that reduce antibody levels ... More

Central Nervous System Pain Pathways  

Andrew J. Todd and Fan Wang

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Nociceptive primary afferents detect stimuli that are normally perceived as painful, and these afferents form synapses in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and the spinal trigeminal ... More

Changes in the Inferior Colliculus Associated with Hearing Loss: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss, Age-Related Hearing Loss, Tinnitus and Hyperacusis  

Alan R. Palmer and Joel I. Berger

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Apr 2018
The inferior colliculus is an important auditory relay center that undergoes fundamental changes following hearing loss, whether noise induced (NIHL) or age related (ARHL). These changes ... More

Chemo- and Optogenetic Strategies for the Elucidation of Pain Pathways  

Sascha R.A. Alles, Anne-Marie Malfait, and Richard J. Miller

Pain is not a simple phenomenon and, beyond its conscious perception, involves circuitry that allows the brain to provide an affective context for nociception, which can influence mood and ... More

Chemosensory Transduction in Arthropods  

Monika Stengl

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Reception of chemicals via olfaction and gustation are prerequisites to find, distinguish, and recognize food and mates and to avoid dangers. Several receptor gene superfamilies are ... More

The Cochlear Nuclei: Synaptic Plasticity in Circuits and Synapses in the Ventral Cochlear Nuclei  

Donata Oertel, Xiao-Jie Cao, and Alberto Recio-Spinoso

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Sep 2018
Plasticity in neuronal circuits is essential for optimizing connections as animals develop and for adapting to injuries and aging, but it can also distort the processing, as well as ... More

The Cochlear Nucleus as a Generator of Tinnitus-Related Signals  

J.A. Kaltenbach and D.A. Godfrey

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Tinnitus most commonly begins with alterations of input from the ear resulting from cochlear trauma or overstimulation of the ear. Because the cochlear nucleus is the first processing ... More

Dendritic Targeting and Regulatory RNA Control of Local Neuronal Translation  

Taesun Eom, Ilham A. Muslimov, Anna Iacoangeli, and Henri Tiedge

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
This chapter reviews current developments in the area of translational control in neurons. It focuses on the activity-dependent translational modulation by neuronal regulatory RNAs, ... More

Descending Auditory Pathways and Plasticity  

Brett R. Schofield and Nichole L. Beebe

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Descending auditory pathways originate from multiple levels of the auditory system and use a variety of neurotransmitters, including glutamate, GABA, glycine, acetylcholine, and dopamine. ... More

The Diversified Form and Function of Cochlear Afferents  

Paul Albert Fuchs

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Sep 2018
Cochlear afferents differ in form and function. The great majority are type I, large diameter, myelinated neurons that contact a single inner hair cell to transmit acoustic information. ... More

Dorsal Horn Pain Mechanisms  

Hanns Ulrich Zeilhofer and Robert Ganley

The spinal dorsal horn and its equivalent structure in the brainstem constitute the first sites of synaptic integration in the pain pathway. A huge body of literature exists on alterations ... More

Dorsal Root Ganglion Neuron Types and Their Functional Specialization  

Edward C. Emery and Patrik Ernfors

Primary sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) respond and relay sensations that are felt, such as those for touch, pain, temperature, itch, and more. The ability to ... More

Dysregulated Protein Synthesis in Major Depressive Disorder  

Chelcie F. Heaney and Kimberly F. Raab-Graham

Online publication date:
Apr 2019
Major depressive disorder is a debilitating disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 17% in the adult population. By reverse engineering how antidepressants work at the cellular level, ... More

Efferent Innervation to the Cochlea  

Ana Belén Elgoyhen, Carolina Wedemeyer, and Mariano N. Di Guilmi

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The auditory system consists of ascending and descending neuronal pathways. The best studied is the ascending pathway, whereby sounds that are transduced in the cochlea into electrical ... More

Environmental Enrichment and Neuronal Plasticity  

Gregory D. Clemenson, Fred H. Gage, and Craig E.L. Stark

This chapter reviews the literature on environmental enrichment and specifically discusses its influence on the hippocampus of the brain. In animal models, the term “environmental ... More

Extraction of Auditory Information by Modulation of Neuronal Ion Channels  

Leonard K. Kaczmarek

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Jun 2018
All neurons express a subset of over seventy genes encoding potassium channel subunits. These channels have been studied in auditory neurons, particularly in the medial nucleus of the ... More

FMRP and MicroRNAs in Neuronal Protein Synthesis  

Monica C. Lannom and Stephanie Ceman

Online publication date:
Oct 2018
New protein synthesis is critical for learning and memory. The discovery of ribosomes at synapses indicated the potential for local protein synthesis in response to stimulation. miRNAs ... More

GABAA Receptor Physiology and Pharmacology  

Martin Wallner, Anne Kerstin Lindemeyer, and Richard W. Olsen

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
GABAA receptors (GABAARs) are the main inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors and mediate rapid synaptic as well as slow extrasynaptic inhibitory neurotransmission. Structurally, GABAARs ... More

Genetic Analysis of Behavior in Drosophila  

Björn Brembs

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Feb 2017
The main function of brains is to generate adaptive behavior. Far from being the stereotypical, robot-like insect, the fruit fly Drosophila exhibits astounding flexibility and chooses ... More

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