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Acid-Sensing Ion Channels  

Stefan Gründer

Online publication date:
Nov 2020
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated Na+ channels. Being almost ubiquitously present in neurons of the vertebrate nervous system, their precise function remained obscure for a ... More

Age-Related and Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: Central Consequences in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus  

Ruili Xie, Tessa-Jonne F. Ropp, Michael R. Kasten, and Paul B. Manis

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Hearing loss generally occurs in the auditory periphery but leads to changes in the central auditory system. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and age-related hearing loss (ARHL) affect ... More

Aging Processes in the Subcortical Auditory System  

Donald M. Caspary and Daniel A. Llano

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Sep 2018
As arguably the third most common malady of industrialized populations, age-related hearing loss is associated with social isolation and depression in a subset of the population that will ... More

Alzheimer’s Disease: Causes, Mechanisms, and Steps Toward Prevention  

Se Hoon Choi and Rudolph E. Tanzi

Online publication date:
Sep 2020
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly; it is clinically characterized by progressive memory loss and catastrophic cognitive dysfunction. ... More

AMPA and Kainate Receptors  

G. Brent Dawe, Patricia M. G. E. Brown, and Derek Bowie

Online publication date:
Oct 2020
α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and kainate-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs and KARs) are dynamic ion channel proteins that govern neuronal excitation and ... More

Associative Learning in Invertebrates  

Romuald Nargeot and Alexis Bédécarrats

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Behaviors of invertebrates can be modified by associative learning in a similar manner to those of vertebrates. Two simple forms of associative learning, Pavlovian and operant conditioning, ... More

The Auditory Brainstem Implant: Restoration of Speech Understanding from Electric Stimulation of the Human Cochlear Nucleus  

Robert V. Shannon

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Jan 2019
The auditory brainstem implant (ABI) is a surgically implanted device to electrically stimulate auditory neurons in the cochlear nucleus complex of the brainstem in humans to restore ... More

Auditory Systems of Drosophila and Other Invertebrates  

Yun Doo Chung and Jeongmi Lee

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Hearing in invertebrates has evolved independently as an adaptation to avoid predators or to mediate intraspecific communication. Although many invertebrate groups are able to respond to ... More

Autoantibodies and Neuropathic Pain  

John M. Dawes and David L. Bennett

Print publication date:
Jun 2020
Online publication date:
Nov 2019
A number of clinical studies indicated an association between autoantibodies and neuropathic pain. This is supported by the observation that immunotherapies that reduce antibody levels ... More

Axon Trajectories in the Auditory Brainstem  

Nell Beatty Cant

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Feb 2019
This chapter summarizes what is known about the organization of the axons that make up the white matter of the auditory brainstem. The sources of the axons in each of the major fiber ... More

Brainstem Encoding of Speech and Music Sounds in Humans  

Nina Kraus and Trent Nicol

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Sep 2018
The encoding of speech and music in the auditory brainstem is available at the human scalp via the auditory-evoked frequency following response. The FFR, primarily reflecting activity in ... More

Cancer and Pain  

Rie Bager Hansen and Sarah Falk

Print publication date:
Jun 2020
Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Pain is a common and feared complication for many cancer patients. Cancer pain covers numerous pain syndromes; since the treatment is complex, it is essential to assess each individual ... More

Central Nervous System Pain Pathways  

Andrew J. Todd and Fan Wang

Print publication date:
Jun 2020
Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Nociceptive primary afferents detect stimuli that are normally perceived as painful, and these afferents form synapses in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and the spinal trigeminal ... More

Changes in the Inferior Colliculus Associated with Hearing Loss: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss, Age-Related Hearing Loss, Tinnitus and Hyperacusis  

Alan R. Palmer and Joel I. Berger

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Apr 2018
The inferior colliculus is an important auditory relay center that undergoes fundamental changes following hearing loss, whether noise induced (NIHL) or age related (ARHL). These changes ... More

Chemo- and Optogenetic Strategies for the Elucidation of Pain Pathways  

Sascha R. A. Alles, Anne-Marie Malfait, and Richard J. Miller

Print publication date:
Jun 2020
Online publication date:
Nov 2019
Pain is not a simple phenomenon and, beyond its conscious perception, involves circuitry that allows the brain to provide an affective context for nociception, which can influence mood and ... More

Chemosensory Transduction in Arthropods  

Monika Stengl

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Reception of chemicals via olfaction and gustation are prerequisites to find, distinguish, and recognize food and mates and to avoid dangers. Several receptor gene superfamilies are ... More

Chloride Channels in Nociceptors  

Uhtaek Oh and Jooyoung Jung

Print publication date:
Jun 2020
Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Pain may be induced by activation of various ion channels expressed in primary afferent neurons. These channels function as molecular sensors that detect noxious chemical, temperature, or ... More

Cnidarian Neurobiology  

Richard Satterlie

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Important cnidarian contributions to our understanding of nervous system evolution may be found in the arrangement of conducting systems and their interactions. We see multiple, diffuse ... More

The Cochlear Nuclei: Synaptic Plasticity in Circuits and Synapses in the Ventral Cochlear Nuclei  

Donata Oertel, Xiao-Jie Cao, and Alberto Recio-Spinoso

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Sep 2018
Plasticity in neuronal circuits is essential for optimizing connections as animals develop and for adapting to injuries and aging, but it can also distort the processing, as well as ... More

The Cochlear Nucleus as a Generator of Tinnitus-Related Signals  

J.A. Kaltenbach and D.A. Godfrey

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Oct 2018
Tinnitus most commonly begins with alterations of input from the ear resulting from cochlear trauma or overstimulation of the ear. Because the cochlear nucleus is the first processing ... More

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