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Ancient Versions and Textual Transmission of the Old Testament  

Gerard J. Norton

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article first gives a schematic outline of the history of the Hebrew text in four stages. It then presents the elements that readers will meet in modern editions of that text. These ... More

Augustine and Pelagius on the Epistle to the Romans  

Mark Edwards

Print publication date:
Jan 2011
Online publication date:
May 2011
Perhaps no scriptural passage has divided the church so bitterly, or so often, as the ninth article of the Epistle to the Romans. Predestinarian readings take two forms, one of which ... More

The Construction of Gender in the New Testament  

Colleen M. Conway

Print publication date:
Nov 2014
Online publication date:
Apr 2014
This chapter begins with a brief overview of the theorists who have shaped gender analytical work on the New Testament, especially the application of gender theory in classical studies. It ... More

Early Christian Apocryphal Literature  

Stephen J. Shoemaker

Print publication date:
Sep 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
The apocryphal literature of early Christianity consists primarily of narrative traditions about the life and teaching of Jesus, his family, and his apostles, as well as letters, ... More

The Growth of the Apocrypha  

Alison Salvesen

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Both apocryphal and pseudepigraphical works are increasingly studied at an academic level for what they reveal of the religious preoccupations of their writers and the communities that ... More

The Growth of the New Testament  

John M. Court

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article surveys the growth of the New Testament. The story of the movement in the first centuries towards the canon of the New Testament has three particularly significant historical ... More

Martyr Passions and Hagiography  

Susan Ashbrook Harvey

Print publication date:
Sep 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
A large body of literature survives from the early Christian period, devoted first to accounts of martyrdom suffered on behalf of the emerging religion and then to lives of exemplary ... More

Narratives about the Apostles: Non-canonical Acts and Related Literature  

Richard Pervo

Print publication date:
Aug 2015
Online publication date:
Feb 2016
Following an introduction that seeks to locate stories about apostles within ancient (especially popular) narratives, the chapter presents analytic and critical summaries of three groups: ... More

Non-canonical Epistles and Related Literature  

Andrew Gregory

Print publication date:
Aug 2015
Online publication date:
Feb 2016
This chapter sets out to situate non-canonical epistles in the wider literary context of letter writing in Late Antiquity and in the historical context of early Christianity. It notes that ... More

Poetry and Hymnography (1): Christian Latin Poetry  

Michael J. Roberts

Print publication date:
Sep 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Christian Latin poetry began in all probability with the unmetrical quasi-hexameters of Commodian, now generally dated to the mid-third century CE. The last important figure still writing ... More

Poetry and Hymnography (2): The Greek World  

John A. McGuckin

Print publication date:
Sep 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Greek Christian hymns are a massive part of the surviving literary record of the early church, but have rarely attracted the level of scholarly attention that they deserve. This article ... More

Poetry and Hymnography (3): Syriac  

Sebastian P. Brock

Print publication date:
Sep 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Poetry has always played a very important role in the history of Syriac literature, and even today, collections of poems by contemporary authors continue to appear. Verse can often also ... More

Shared Exegetical Traditions between the Scrolls and the New Testament  

George J. Brooke

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
This article describes and discusses some aspects of biblical interpretation in the Dead Sea Scrolls and the New Testament, aspects that in some way seem to suggest common concerns, whether ... More

Texts about Jesus: Non-canonical Gospels and Related Literature  

Jörg Frey

Print publication date:
Aug 2015
Online publication date:
Feb 2016
As a general overview, the article explores the whole range of non-canonical texts about Jesus. Starting with aspects of the scholarly and public interest in those texts, and questions of ... More

Textual Criticism  

Arie Van der Kooij

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Since, as is generally assumed, the biblical books in Hebrew (and Aramaic) go back to a period of a much earlier date – that of the seventh to the second centuries BCE – the question arises ... More

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