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Accountability and Responsibility of Online Intermediaries  

Giancarlo Frosio and Martin Husovec

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
May 2020
This chapter summarizes recent developments in intermediary liability theory with special emphasis on the emergence of voluntary measures and private ordering. Looking at the legal ... More

Accountability in Computer Systems  

Joshua A. Kroll

Print publication date:
Jul 2020
Online publication date:
Jul 2020
This chapter addresses the relationship between AI systems and the concept of accountability. To understand accountability in the context of AI systems, one must begin by examining the ... More

Addressing Infringement: Developments in Content Regulation in the US and the DNS  

Annemarie Bridy

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
May 2020
The reach of privately ordered online content regulation is wide and deepening. It is deepening with reference to the internet’s protocol stack, migrating downward from the application ... More

Administrative Enforcement of Copyright Infringement in Europe  

Alessandro Cogo and Marco Ricolfi

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
May 2020
In recent years, the number of countries which have opted for the involvement of administrative bodies in the enforcement of copyright has increased as a result of the remarkable ... More

AI and Migration Management  

Petra Molnar

Print publication date:
Jul 2020
Online publication date:
Jul 2020
This chapter focuses on how technologies used in the management of migration—such as automated decision-making in immigration and refugee applications and artificial intelligence (AI) lie ... More

AI and the Global South: Designing for Other Worlds  

Chinmayi Arun

Print publication date:
Jul 2020
Online publication date:
Jul 2020
This chapter details how AI affects, and will continue to affect, the Global South. The term “South” has a history connected with the “Third World” and has referred to countries that share ... More

AI as a Moral Right-Holder  

John Basl and Joseph Bowen

Print publication date:
Jul 2020
Online publication date:
Jul 2020
This chapter evaluates whether AI systems are or will be rights-holders. It develops a skeptical stance toward the idea that current forms of artificial intelligence are holders of moral ... More

AI Governance by Human Rights–Centered Design, Deliberation, and Oversight: An End to Ethics Washing  

Karen Yeung, Andrew Howes, and Ganna Pogrebna

Print publication date:
Jul 2020
Online publication date:
Jul 2020
This chapter argues that international human rights standards offer the most promising basis for developing a coherent and universally recognized set of standards that can be applied to ... More

Algorithmic Accountability: Towards Accountable Systems  

Ben Wagner

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
May 2020
There is an ongoing move towards privatization of law enforcement online through algorithmic tools. This chapter discusses algorithmic accountability and its relevance for intermediary ... More

Algorithms and the Social Organization of Work  

Ifeoma Ajunwa and Rachel Schlund

Print publication date:
Jul 2020
Online publication date:
Jul 2020
This chapter argues that the proliferation of automated algorithms in the workplace raises questions as to how they might be used in service of the control of workers. In particular, ... More

Are Human Biomedical Interventions Legitimate Regulatory Policy Instruments?  

Karen Yeung

Print publication date:
Jul 2017
Online publication date:
Dec 2016
This chapter examines the legitimacy of utilizing human biomedical interventions for regulatory purposes, drawing on regulatory governance scholarship, bioethical debates about human ... More

Are Sentient AIs Persons?  

Mark Kingwell

Print publication date:
Jul 2020
Online publication date:
Jul 2020
This chapter looks at the risks to sentient AIs from their human creators. Sentient AIs would represent, by all reasonable accounts, a new form of autonomous life. If that is so, they would ... More

Artificial Intelligence and Inequality in the Middle East: The Political Economy of Inclusion  

Nagla Rizk

Print publication date:
Jul 2020
Online publication date:
Jul 2020
This chapter looks at the challenges, opportunities, and tensions facing the equitable development of artificial intelligence (AI) in the MENA region in the aftermath of the Arab Spring. ... More

The Artificial Intelligence of the Ethics of Artificial Intelligence: An Introductory Overview for Law and Regulation  

Joanna J. Bryson

Print publication date:
Jul 2020
Online publication date:
Jul 2020
This chapter provides an overview of the nature and implications of artificial intelligence (AI), with particular attention to how they impinge on possible applications to and of law. Any ... More

Audience Constructions, Reputations, and Emerging Media Technologies: New Issues of Legal and Social Policy  

Nora A. Draper and Joseph Turow

Print publication date:
Jul 2017
Online publication date:
Dec 2016
This chapter traces how changes in media and surveillance technologies have influenced the strategies producers have for constructing audiences. The largely unregulated practices of ... More

Automatic Justice?: Technology, Crime, and Social Control  

Amber Marks, Ben Bowling, and Colman Keenan

Print publication date:
Jul 2017
Online publication date:
Feb 2017
This chapter examines how forensic science and technology are reshaping crime investigation, prosecution, and the administration of criminal justice. It highlights the profound effect of ... More

Automating Origination: Perspectives from the Humanities  

Avery Slater

Print publication date:
Jul 2020
Online publication date:
Jul 2020
This chapter highlights historic and contemporary efforts to engineer artificial intelligence (AI) capable of producing artifacts previously associated with the creative arts. While ... More

Autonomy  

Michael Wheeler

Print publication date:
Jul 2020
Online publication date:
Jul 2020
This chapter assesses the concept of the autonomous AI—AI that is self-governing. Unease regarding autonomous AI is most vividly expressed in the vision of an artificial superintelligence ... More

Beyond Bias: “Ethical AI” in Criminal Law  

Chelsea Barabas

Print publication date:
Jul 2020
Online publication date:
Jul 2020
This chapter discusses contemporary debates regarding the use of artificial intelligence as a vehicle for criminal justice reform. It closely examines two general approaches to what has ... More

Blocking Orders: Assessing Tensions with Human Rights  

Christophe Geiger and Elena Izyumenko

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
May 2020
In the past few years, the practice of enforcing intellectual property by ordering internet access providers to block infringing websites has been rapidly growing, especially in Europe. ... More

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