Kjell Å Modéer
This chapter is about the relations between the national legal system and the ‘other’—especially from the creation of the modern nation state in the early nineteenth century and up to current times. Comparative law in the twentieth century was dominated by the concept of ‘valid law’, functionalism, legal positivism and legal realism. The parameters of time and space within law were minimalized. The German law emigrés from Nazi Germany to England and the United States played a special role for the relation to comparative law, and several of these scholars played a great role for the post-war development of comparative law. Critical theories and post-colonialism have developed new legal discourses on culture and identity, and have increased interest not only in history but also in differences between legal cultures—and thus an increasing interest in comparative legal history.
This chapter examines the role of adjudication systems in handling environmental disputes. It first considers the role of the judiciary in relation to the environment and its place within the context of value-driven decision-making. It then explores the challenges raised by environmental litigation and their impact on environmental adjudication systems, along with various responses to them. It also describes different models for judicial adjudication of environmental disputes that take into account jurisdictional specialization, judicial specialization, scope and hierarchy of the court’s review, specialist cost and standing rules, and access to legal and scientific advice. Case studies are is used to illustrate bespoke solutions to environmental adjudication. The chapter concludes with an analysis of the relative merits of the adjudicative models mentioned above, and what this implies about environmental adjudication in general.
This article begins with a discussion of the constitutionalization of affirmative action and its side effects. It examines the legal underpinnings of affirmative action in two relatively well-endowed developing countries and former British colonies — Malaysia and South Africa — where the disadvantaged groups that receive the benefits of affirmative action are numerical majorities from the start. It also considers the case of India, where the disadvantaged groups targeted for affirmative action initially are numerical minorities. The discussion then turns to the non-constitutionalization of affirmative action and its side effects. In countries where affirmative action has not been constitutionalized and where the beneficiaries (women excepted) are minority groups, the legal validity of a program of this kind will depend upon whether it meets a set of formal requirements. The most important of those is arguably that the outcome of the decisional process by which scarce goods are being allocated should not be exclusively determined by group membership. The soft, gender-focused, ‘discrimination-blocking’ EU affirmative action model and the (exceptional) US affirmative action regime are examined.
The paradigmatic public institution associated with the application of Islamic law from the rise of Islam until the end of the nineteenth century has been the qadi. This essay examines the scholarship on this institution, organizing studies into doctrinal works and empirical works. Doctrinal studies of the qadi are based almost entirely on literary sources, most commonly legal texts. Historical sources have also been important, especially for the pre-Ottoman period. Empirical studies of the qadi, by contrast, base themselves almost entirely on surviving court records. Thus, most empirical studies are limited to courts of the Ottoman Empire which kept systematic records of court decisions in contrast to the courts of previous Muslim states, which did not. In the modern period, there has been a distinct rise in an anthropological approach to the qadi, with numerous studies having been published based on direct observation of the behavior of Muslim judges.
Sally Engle Merry
The concept of legal pluralism has proved enormously fruitful in challenging ideas about the centrality of state law and increasing awareness of the diversity of ways that individuals interact with the law. As scholars seek to understand international law as a sociocultural as well as a legal field, the concept of global legal pluralism offers a useful framework. It provides a way to theorize the fluidity and fragmentation of international law as well as its spaces of openness and opportunity. It is a way to understand its regulatory role in conjunction with regional, national, and local systems and the structures of local, national, and global power which shape its practices. The concept of global legal pluralism highlights both the global nature of the new legal terrain as well as the relative normativities of various orders, from the strictly “legal” to those based on cultural practices rather than state law. The anthropological concept of legal pluralism helps to understand the complexity of the global legal order, with a focus on the way its fragmentation and incommensurability operates in practice in the highly complex sociocultural global situation.
Keebet von Benda-Beckmann and Bertram Turner
Since the turn of the century, the term “legal pluralism” has seen a remarkable rise in interest. It is now widely accepted, although it was long rejected in legal studies. When legal anthropologists began to refer to “legal pluralism” in the 1970s, this marked a crucial change in anthropological thinking about law. Since then, not only have political and economic developments profoundly changed constellations of legal pluralism but also the term itself has followed a variety of trajectories and accrued multiple meanings in the process. In particular, in the trajectory of global legal pluralism, it has acquired a normative meaning that is quite distinct from its use in anthropology as a tool of analysis. This chapter discusses how the anthropological study of law and legal pluralism developed from the study of law in colonial societies toward empirical studies in postcolonial settings and in nation-states around the globe under conditions of ever-increasing global connectedness and complexity. Global legal pluralism is analyzed in relation to topics that include law and development, religion, human rights, minorities, indigeneity, and politics of global legal pluralism. At the end the chapter offers an outlook into future anthropological research on global legal pluralism. Insights were developed not only in response to sociopolitical developments but also to changing theoretical perspectives.
This chapter assesses three key strands in the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union concerning a central dimension of foreign relations law, namely, the application of international law. The first section focuses on how the Court has reviewed the compatibility of EU-concluded treaties or envisaged treaties with the European Union’s constitutional text and also the review of treaties concluded by the member states. Judicial review powers in relation to treaties have increasingly been included in constitutional texts, but the European Union is distinctive in that its Court of Justice has regularly been called upon to exercise this form of jurisdiction, thus offering potentially valuable foreign relations law insights for constitutional design and practice in other constitutional systems. The second section focuses on the judicial enforcement of treaties and identifies a spate of recent rulings where more international law friendly outcomes would have been possible. A briefer third section focuses on the application of customary international law and highlights in particular the high threshold set for judicial review vis-à-vis such norms. The recent judicial developments identified in each of the respective three sections of this chapter have increasingly been deployed to challenge the traditionally dominant narrative in EU law scholarship of a Court of Justice that adopts a markedly international law friendly approach.
The inevitable interaction of legal and quasi-legal systems and norms across territorial borders not only impacts individuals as members of multiple communities (both territorial and nonterritorial), it also has implications for the conduct of cross-border arbitration. This chapter charts emerging non-state-based norms as applied in the context of international arbitration. It addresses how arbitral bodies can and do use nonstate standards in adjudication including industry standards, customs, and practices and how national courts uphold such applications. Over time, resort to these various quasi-legal standards is contributing to the creation of a transnational set of norms that is reshaping the global arbitral system.
This chapter examines the role of environmental assessment (EA) in mediating between the scientific, political, and normative elements within environmental decision-making. It first provides an overview of the origins of EA and how it spread worldwide before considering the different theoretical models that have been developed to explain the structure and role of EA as an institutionalized approach to environmental decision-making. It then discusses the elements of environmental impact assessment (EIA) as a policy instrument, namely: application, screening, scoping, participation, decisions, and follow-up and monitoring. The chapter concludes with an analysis of the convergence and divergence in EA practice and how the diverging approaches to EA may affect the degree or type of influence that assessment processes have on environmental outcomes.
Ulrich K. Preuß
Associative rights cover those constitutional guarantees which deal with the joint actions of individuals. The promise of associative rights to individuals is the most effective means of their empowerment in the polity. At the same time, this guarantee gives rise to a decentralized power structure in society which has a major bearing on the modes of how collective decisions are made in the polity. Three constitutional rights are pertinent in this respect, ranging in the order of increasing empowerment and, consequently, structural effects on the polity: the right to petition for the redress of grievances, the right to the freedom of assembly, and the right to the freedom of association. This article presents a comparative overview of associative rights and considers only those constitutions which effectively shape the character of the polity, where, in other words, collective actions of citizens are an inherent element of an entrenched sphere of socio-political autonomy.
This chapter examines the legal status and consequences of the asymmetrically federal provisions included in the Indian Constitution. In particular, it considers constitutional amendments relating to autonomy arrangements in India’s North-eastern region, along with the ‘special status’ of Jammu and Kashmir. After providing an overview of the significance of asymmetric federalism in India, the article discusses the administration of tribal areas under the Fifth and Sixth Schedules. It also explores provisions aimed at mitigating intra-State inequalities in the States of Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Karnataka; the Indian Supreme Court’s rulings on the asymmetric features of the Constitution; and the role of the courts in upholding asymmetrical provisions and protecting the rights of territorially concentrated minorities in the context of democratic politics.
This chapter examines atmospheric pollution legislation from a comparative perspective. It begins with a discussion of the definition and legal boundaries relevant to atmospheric pollution, citing a few events which raised the attention on air pollution issues in different national jurisdictions. It then provides a brief overview of the regulatory regime for air pollution that exists at the international level before analysing air pollution control in a transboundary context. It also compares three models of regulatory intervention and areas of activity: the European Union, the United States, and China. In particular, it describes the most relevant features contained in the legislation developed within those three jurisdictions to address air pollution. Finally, it explores four air pollution issues in the European Union, the United States, and China, namely: the regulatory system for air pollution control, legislative approach to air pollution control, instrument choice, and the role of courts.
This chapter examines the structure and substance of environmental law in Australia. It begins with a discussion of how powers are distributed in environmental governance in Australia, taking into account the law’s constitutional basis, and more specifically the division of legislative capacity between the states and the Commonwealth, as well as the relationship between Commonwealth and state legislation in practice. It then considers environmental protection, with a focus on protection from pollution and harm, conservation of environmental values, and the emergence of a complex system to facilitate ecologically sustainable development. It also analyses the implementation framework for Australian environmental law, emphasizing the importance of credible information and analysis in making decisions about the future use of the environment and about past actions impacting on it. Finally, it explores the nature of sanctions and remedies, including compliance with liability rules and decision-making rules as well as the nature of environmental litigation.
This article explores the connections between bioethics and basic rights partly by analyzing the basic legal norms of bioethics, and partly by comparing thematic cases from the jurisdictions of the European Court of Human Rights and the US Supreme Court, as well as some cases from other jurisdictions. It focuses on two major lines of thought in contemporary bioethics: the first is concerned with the boundaries of life (e.g., issues of embryo research, assisted reproduction, and end of life decisions) and the second is related to the contemporary exploration of the frontiers of the human body (issues such as the use of human tissues and human DNA for research and other purposes).
Antonio Herman Benjamin and Nicholas Bryner
This chapter examines Brazil’s environmental law. It first provides an overview of Brazil’s constitutional structure as it relates to federalism and the environment, taking into account how the Constitution grants federal (and state) ownership of and power to manage certain natural resources. It then considers the structure and substance of environmental law in Brazil, focusing on the major bodies of law such as the National Environmental Policy Act of 1981, the Forest Code (2012), and those dealing with protected areas, environmental crimes, water, climate change, and solid waste. The chapter goes on to discuss the implementation framework for Brazil’s environmental law, including administrative and judicial bodies, as well as the special and important role of environmental public prosecutors and the judiciary. Finally, it analyses the application of law in combating unsustainable deforestation and land use changes in the Amazon.
Karen Alvarenga Oliveira
This chapter examines the climate change policy of Brazil. In 2010 at the Sixteenth Conference of Parties in Cancún, Brazil announced its voluntary national target of significantly reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions between 36.1 per cent and 38.9 per cent of projected emissions by 2020. These targets were defined in the Brazilian National Policy on Climate Change (PNMC). The PNMC establishes principles, guidelines, and economic instruments for reaching the national voluntary targets. It relies on sectoral plans for mitigation and adaptation to climate change in order to facilitate the move towards a low-carbon economy. The PNMC defined various aspects related to the measurement of goals, formulation of sectoral plans and of action plans for the prevention and control of deforestation in all Brazilian biomes, and governance structure.
This chapter surveys Canadian environmental law, including the allocation of environmental powers, the choice of regulatory models, and the implementation of environmental laws. Notable Canadian accomplishments include broad municipal powers, pioneering experimentation with sustainability assessment, North American leadership on carbon taxes, and a history of innovation with indigenous land claims. Overall, however, the chapter challenges Canada’s image as an environmental law leader, documenting its timid version of environmental federalism, generally conservative judiciary, limited policy imagination, feeble pursuit of environmental justice, excessive levels of administrative discretion, frequent bouts of deregulation and fiscal austerity, and largely rhetorical embrace of environmental rights, the polluter-pays principle, the precautionary principle, and sustainable development. Against this background, Canadian indigenous peoples are vigorously reasserting their environmental sovereignty and laws. Reconciliation between settler and indigenous societies is amongst the greatest challenges and opportunities facing Canadian environmental law today.
Amy Cutter-McKenzie-Knowles, Marianne Logan, Ferdousi Khatun, and Karen Malone
This chapter presents a historical and policy cartography of environmental education. It begins with a brief historical overview of significant environmental education initiatives, focusing on how they became part of a highly political and intergovernmental agenda and how the concept of sustainable development has infiltrated the field of environmental education. It then considers the neoliberal relationship between environmental education and sustainable development before providing a cartography of environmental education policies and an analysis of ‘currents’ (the complex and evolving perspectives and pedagogies) in the field. Two case studies of environmental education are discussed, namely, the Climate Change + Me project in Australia and the story of a teacher named Rose in Bangladesh who inspired environmental consciousness and sustainable practices amongst her students.
Louis J. Kotzé and Erin Daly
This chapter presents a cartography of environmental human rights, with particular emphasis on the current and potential contribution of human rights in augmenting global environmental protection and justice. It first provides a short account of the relationship between human rights and the environment, including the increased popularity of human rights as environmental protection measures, and explains the reasons the convergence between them. It then considers the historical milestones in the development of environmental human rights, along with the different manifestations of the rights-based approach (substantive political environmental rights, socio-economic environmental rights, procedural environmental rights, substantive right to a healthy environment, and rights of nature). Specific examples in international, regional, and domestic law where these forms of the rights-based approach occur are given. The chapter concludes with a discussion of three overarching criticisms of environmental human rights, one of which asserts that rights-based approaches have been ineffective in securing human rights.