Janet Porter and Rosalie Hilde
For years, diversity scholars have been calling for more empirical studies that specifically show how linguistic and non-linguistic practices produce asymmetrical differences between and among social groups. To that end, we show that textual analysis methodologies can provide situational, contextual, and empirical research that demonstrates practices and productions of these differences in organizations and workplaces. We further provide researchers with two overlooked approaches of textual analysis methodology that add a multi-level organizational dimension to studying the production of these differences—critical sensemaking and discourse theory. By establishing and maintaining contextual relevance and casting organization as socially constructed on multiple levels, these two approaches help point to systemic-wide strategies for addressing critical organizational, institutional and societal diversity issues such as discrimination or harassment. This chapter will be useful for the diversity researcher who studies linguistic and non-linguistic practices in organizational, institutional, and social formations.
This chapter is focused on what survey research has recently contributed to our knowledge of diversity management outcomes and what is to be done to bring this field further. To this end it provides an overview of recent survey research articles on diversity management outcomes. They reveal inconsistent results: whereas organizational surveys have yielded inconclusive findings with regard to the outcomes of diversity policies and management, employee surveys have often shown positive relationships between diversity policies and management and employee outcomes. The inconsistency of these findings are then further explained by discussing four main methodological weaknesses of current survey research on diversity management outcomes and by relating these issues to the main gaps in our knowledge. A research agenda for future survey research on diversity management outcomes is outlined to which questions regarding when and why diversity management would lead to favourable outcomes are central.
Alexis A. Fink and Michael C. Sturman
Taking advantage of the history of research quantifying the effects of human resource (HR) practices, leveraging current advances in information systems and opportunities presented by big data, HR metrics and talent analytics present a renewed opportunity to help drive effective HR practices. HR metrics are operational measures, addressing how efficient, effective, and impactful an organization’s HR practices are. In contrast, talent analytics focus on decision points, guiding investment decisions. The chapter provides an overview of the historic roots and current practices around HR metrics and talent analytics. Through this, we explore the role, benefits, and risks of benchmarking and utility analyses as two common approaches to setting HR metrics. We discuss how current advances in research and practice make the use of HR metrics and talent analytics a greater business necessity. We conclude the chapter with a discussion on fostering talent analytics within organizations.
In Search of the ‘Real’: The Subversive Potential of Ethnography in the Field of Diversity Management
Paul Mutsaers and Marja-Liisa Trux
This chapter presents a comparison of two ethnographic case studies in two different national contexts, with the purpose of separating the rhetorics from the realities in the field of diversity management. It counterweighs mainstream diversity management literature by discussing (1) the disadvantages of certain offshoots of diversity management discourses for ethnic minority police officers in the Netherlands and (2) the benefits of the absence of diversity management for software engineers working in a highly internationalized high-tech company in Finland, a company characterized by a strong tradition of ‘organizational democracy’. The two studies are based on long-term fieldwork in both organizational settings, including several years of participant observation.
Individuals, Teams, and Organizational Benefits of Managing Diversity: An Evidence-Based Perspective
Eddy Ng and Jacqueline Stephenson
Although the benefits of diversity are promising, research findings on its direct effect at various levels of the organization have been mixed. This chapter reviews existing research and documents how, when, and under what conditions diversity enhances performance at the individual, team, and organizational levels. We suggest that the positive effects of diversity on performance at all levels are present, but they are established only under the appropriate conditions. We identify several policies and practices which are effective at promoting a more diverse workforce as well as enhance the benefit of diversity. We conclude with suggestions for future research to extend our knowledge on the benefits that can be derived from a diverse workforce.
Kevin R. Murphy
Tests and structured assessments are used to make inferences and decisions about individuals and groups. In personnel selection, these can range from assessments of the knowledge, skills, and abilities thought to be necessary for successful job performance to evaluations of current and past job performance. This article discusses assessments that range from paper-and-pencil tests of work-related abilities and skills to the measures based on the judgments of an interviewer or a supervisor. Many of the principles of psychometrics were first developed in the context of multi-item written tests of abilities or other enduring characteristics of individuals. In this article, the descriptions of the main models and methods of psychometrics are often framed in terms of specific characteristics of these tests (e.g., the use of multiple test items, in which all items are designed to measure the same characteristic of individuals).
Queer Perspectives Fuelling Diversity Management Discourse: Theoretical and Empirical-Based Reflections
Regine Bendl and Roswitha Hofmann
Diversity management discourse shows that theoretical concepts and strategies often neglect issues of ‘sexual orientation’ or ‘sexuality’, and unwittingly reinforce patterns of exclusion in organizational practice. This chapter considers the diversity category ‘sexual orientation’ within a broader theoretical framework, by highlighting the constitutive connectedness between ‘sex’, ‘gender’, and ‘sexuality’. It uses queer theoretical concepts to give insight into the normative intersections of ‘sex’, ‘gender’, and ‘sexuality’ and, thus, heteronormative phenomena in diversity management discourse. Based on an exploration of multinational corporations (MNCs) and their codes of conduct (CoCs) it highlights the interventional and transformative potential of queer theory as an approach to DM discourse.