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Advanced Agriculture  

Kenneth Pomeranz

Published in print:
Mar 2011
Published Online:
Sep 2012
‘Advanced’ agriculture must be advanced relative to something and by some criteria. There is no consensus on what those criteria are, though certainly high yields per acre, and perhaps per ... More

Agriculture  

Peter M. Jones

Published in print:
Nov 2011
Published Online:
Sep 2012
The agricultural history of the Ancien Régime is inseparable from the socio-economic history of France between 1660 and 1789 if only for the reason that husbandry remained the principal ... More

Agriculture  

John A. Mears

Published in print:
Mar 2011
Published Online:
Sep 2012
When striving to delineate the contours of the human experience, world historians must highlight the major turning points in the existence of our species. Among the momentous watersheds ... More

Antitrust and Regulation in American Economic History  

Brooks Kaiser

Published in print:
Sep 2018
Published Online:
Dec 2018
Over the course of American history and economic development, market activity and the systems underlying and governing this activity have coevolved to address the changing fundamentals of ... More

Archaeology and Slavery  

Theresa Singleton

Published in print:
Jul 2010
Published Online:
Sep 2012
Archaeology provides an interdisciplinary approach to the study of slavery that combines analyses of archaeological findings with careful readings of traditional primary sources of ... More

Atlantic Trade and Commodities, 1402–1815  

David Hancock

Published in print:
Mar 2011
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article reviews the transfer of goods and services between the continents bordering the Atlantic Ocean. It shows that the demands of long-distance trade, particularly but not solely ... More

Atlantic World 1760–1820: Economic Impact  

Craig Muldrew

Published in print:
Mar 2011
Published Online:
Sep 2012
There would have been no Atlantic world without trade. Throughout this period, the consumption of American-produced sugar, tobacco, and coffee, as well as the use of American gold and ... More

Banking and Monetary Policy in American Economic History from the Formation of the Federal Reserve  

Gary Richardson

Published in print:
Sep 2018
Published Online:
Dec 2018
The United States Congress created the Federal Reserve System in 1913. The System consists of the Federal Reserve Board in Washington, DC; twelve Federal Reserve Banks; and thousands of ... More

Banking and Monetary Policy in American Economic History up to the Formation of the Federal Reserve  

Peter Rousseau

Published in print:
Sep 2018
Published Online:
Dec 2018
The US economy developed from an agricultural one mired in debt to an engine of growth between 1790 and 1913. The nation’s bourgeoning financial system was at the heart of this ... More

Biological Exchanges in World History  

J. R. McNeill

Published in print:
Mar 2011
Published Online:
Sep 2012
One important way in which people have altered environments, and thereby altered their own ecological contexts and their own history, is through biological exchange. Biological exchange ... More

Children's Consumption in History  

Daniel Thomas Cook

Published in print:
Mar 2012
Published Online:
Sep 2012
The academic study of children as consumers took root in the 1960s and did not begin in earnest until the 1970s, when the paradigm of ‘consumer socialization’ took hold among ... More

City and Country: Home, Possessions, and Diet, Western Europe 1600–1800  

Dominique Margairaz

Published in print:
Mar 2012
Published Online:
Sep 2012
Already in the early modern period, urban elites defined the city as a place of civilization and cultural progress in stark opposition to the brute nature and barbarism associated with the ... More

The Civil War in American Economic History  

Roger Ransom

Published in print:
Sep 2018
Published Online:
Dec 2018
This chapter examines the following questions: How did the institution of slavery pose an insurmountable obstacle to sectional compromise? What were the “economic costs” of the war to the ... More

Class and Sport  

Lewis H. Siegelbaum and Sasu Siegelbaum

Published in print:
May 2017
Published Online:
May 2017
The history of sport can be considered an arena in which struggles over ways of doing things have worked themselves out, sometimes to the advantage of one class but occasionally to the ... More

The Clearances and the Transformation of the Scottish Countryside  

Robert Dodgshon

Published in print:
Jan 2012
Published Online:
Nov 2012
Underpinning the transformation of the Scottish countryside during the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries, and forming a vital precondition for the Improving Movement, were ... More

Comfort and Convenience: Temporality and Practice  

Elizabeth Shove

Published in print:
Mar 2012
Published Online:
Sep 2012
Despite being embedded in the practices and discourses of daily life, comfort and convenience are not terms around which theories and studies of consumption have traditionally revolved. ... More

Commerce  

Silvia Marzagalli

Published in print:
Nov 2011
Published Online:
Sep 2012
Although in the course of the eighteenth century there emerged in several European countries a desire to set the economy and trade free, in the French case it took the Revolution to sweep ... More

Communism and Economic Modernization  

Mark Harrison

Published in print:
Jan 2014
Published Online:
May 2013
This article examines the range of national experiences of communist rule in terms of the aspiration to ‘overtake and outstrip the advanced countries economically’. It reviews the causal ... More

Consumer Activism, Consumer Regimes, and the Consumer Movement: Rethinking the History of Consumer Politics in the United States  

Lawrence B. Glickman

Published in print:
Mar 2012
Published Online:
Sep 2012
The historiography of consumer society in the United States has matured in the last decade. As David Steigerwald noted in an influential review essay in 2006, ‘consumer interpretations of ... More

Consumer Movements  

Matthew Hilton

Published in print:
Mar 2012
Published Online:
Sep 2012
The phenomena of consumer organizing, consumer protesting, consumer activism, and consumer movements are not confined to recent decades. While many consumers have undoubtedly displayed a ... More

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