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Allegiance, Dual Citizenship, and the Ethnic Influence on U.S. Foreign Policy  

David Brundage

Print publication date:
Aug 2016
Online publication date:
Jan 2014
Following a discussion of what some scholars have seen as “divided loyalties” among immigrants, this article surveys the history of the ethnic influence on U.S. foreign policy from the ... More

Civil Rights Policy  

Mark Rush

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
Apr 2020
This article discusses the evolution of U.S. civil rights and civil liberties through the lens of Supreme Court decisions. It traces the evolution of negative rights against the state and ... More

Colonial Politics  

Stephen Conway

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
Apr 2020
This essay begins by examining the establishment of English political systems in the North American colonies in the seventeenth century. It then goes on to look at eighteenth-century ... More

Communications and Technology Policy  

Heidi Tworek

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
Apr 2020
Federal involvement in communications came early with the development of a national postal system. Yet that involvement was intertwined with and influenced by international developments ... More

Defense and Foreign Policy  

Timothy J. Lynch

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
Apr 2020
The history of American foreign and defense policy is framed by an enduring debate over the appropriate role of federal power in national politics. From the very beginning, parties formed ... More

The Democratic Moment: The Revolution and Popular Politics  

Ray Raphael

Print publication date:
Dec 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
Direct democracy was practiced within town meetings in colonial New England, driven by four overarching principles. First, citizens had a political voice as members of a specific geographic ... More

Democrats and Whigs: The Second American Party System  

Harry L. Watson

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
Apr 2020
The rivalry between the Whig and Democratic Parties, often called the “Second American Party System,” first emerged in Andrew Jackson’s administration (1829–1837). Democrats organized to ... More

The Early Republic, 1789–1815  

John L. Brooke

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
Apr 2020
The twenty-five-year political history of the early American republic, covering the period from the first federal election through the War of 1812, critically shaped the terms and path of ... More

The Empire That Britain Kept  

Eliga H. Gould

Print publication date:
Dec 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
William Augustus Bowles was a loyalist soldier during the American Revolution who also acted as an agent for the British governor of the Bahamas. Had events gone his way, he could have ... More

Environmental and Energy Policy  

Brian Black

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
Apr 2020
This chapter explores the interrelated nature of the environmental and energy policies in the United States, particularly since 1900. As new technologies made new sources of energy viable, ... More

Ethnic Politics in American History  

James J. Connolly

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
Apr 2020
This chapter traces the ways that ethnic politics evolved in the United States. During the mid-nineteenth century, amid heavy immigration from Europe, ascendant mass parties mobilized ... More

Federal Education Policy  

Wayne J. Urban

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
Apr 2020
This article discusses federal educational policy and provisions, briefly in the nineteenth century and more fully in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. It details federal ... More

Gender and Political Citizenship  

Eileen McDonagh and Danielle M. Thomsen

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
Apr 2020
The trajectory of women’s citizenship over the past two centuries reflects the changing political and cultural landscape at various moments in American history as well as a more constant ... More

Health Policy  

Christy Ford Chapin

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
Apr 2020
This article reviews the history of the U.S. health care system and important themes in the scholarly literature pertaining to the subject. It argues that understanding the politics of ... More

Immigration Policy: Restrictive and Expansive Traditions  

Daniel J. Tichenor and Kathryn Miller

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
Apr 2020
Although the United States is a nation shaped by vast waves of immigration over time, Americans have been fighting over policies governing immigrant admissions and rights since the earliest ... More

The Impact of the War on British Politics  

Harry T. Dickinson

Print publication date:
Dec 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
The length, extent, and scale of the American Revolution had a profound impact on political developments across the British Isles. Britain was forced to send the largest army ever to cross ... More

Independence before and during the Revolution  

Benjamin H. Irvin

Print publication date:
Dec 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
Historians of the American Revolution have long argued that American colonists were late and reluctant to sever ties with Britain. They characterized American independence as a natural and ... More

The Long Shadow of Prohibition: U.S. Drug and Alcohol Policy in the Twentieth Century  

Scott C. Martin

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
Apr 2020
This chapter examines the legacy of Prohibition and prohibitory policies for twentieth-century U.S. alcohol and drug policy. It traces twentieth-century alcohol and drug policy from ... More

A More Perfect Union: The Framing and Ratification of the Constitution  

Max M. Edling

Print publication date:
Dec 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
James Madison, the chief architect of the United States Constitution, drafted an introduction to notes from the proceedings of the 1787 Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, ... More

Party Politics and National Policy, Post–World War II  

Daniel DiSalvo

Print publication date:
May 2020
Online publication date:
Apr 2020
This chapter explores the emergence of political and policy polarization in the post–World War II period. In the early Cold War years, a bipartisan foreign policy was evident in the Truman, ... More

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