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The A-Group and 4th Millennium BCE Nubia  

Maria Carmela Gatto

Print publication date:
Feb 2021
Online publication date:
Jan 2021
This chapter discusses the 4th millennium bce in Nubia, which was characterized by a further advance in the process of socio-economic complexity already underway during the previous ... More

The African Acheulean  

Mohamed Sahnouni, Sileshi Semaw, and Michael Rogers

Print publication date:
Jul 2013
Online publication date:
Sep 2013
This article argues that the Acheulean is perhaps the longest lasting cultural–technological tradition in human history, dating from around 1.7 to 0.3 Mya and roughly corresponding to the ... More

African Perspectives on Death, Burial, and Mortuary Archaeology  

David N. Edwards

Print publication date:
May 2013
Online publication date:
Aug 2013
For those engaging with the archaeology of sub-Saharan Africa for the first time, the variable but generally limited presence of mortuary archaeologies may be quite striking, although in a few ... More

The Amun Cult and Its Development in Nubia  

Luc Gabolde

Print publication date:
Feb 2021
Online publication date:
Jan 2021
This chapter examines the origins of the god Amun, of his name, his ram-headed form, and their connections to Nubia, which seem to have been overestimated. Amun appears to be the major ... More

Animals, acculturation, and colonization in ancient and Islamic North Africa  

Michael MacKinnon

Print publication date:
Mar 2017
Online publication date:
Apr 2017
Zooarchaeological comparisons of Roman and Islamic North Africa indicate changes in animal use largely resultant from shifting parameters of urban and economic expansion and development, ... More

The Appearance and Development of Metallurgy South of the Sahara  

Bertram Mapunda

Print publication date:
Jul 2013
Online publication date:
Sep 2013
Africanist archaeometallurgists have conveniently divided Africa into two sub-regions when discussing the continent’s metallurgical history: north of the Sahara Desert, including the ... More

Archaeogenetics of Africa and of the African Hunter-Gatherers  

Viktor Černý and Luísa Pereira

Print publication date:
Apr 2014
Online publication date:
Jul 2014
East African foragers were probably the first who colonized most of the world before the invention of agriculture—their first biologically successful migration out of Africa can be inferred ... More

Archaeological Evidence for the Emergence of Food Production in the Horn of Africa  

Matthew Curtis

Print publication date:
Jul 2013
Online publication date:
Sep 2013
The Horn of Africa is one of the Africa’s most culturally varied regions and the world’s most physiographically diverse areas, possessing an extensive range of climates, topographies, ... More

An Archaeological Perspective on West Africa and the Post-1500 Atlantic World  

Ibrahima Thiaw and François Richard

Print publication date:
Jul 2013
Online publication date:
Sep 2013
Africa’s engagement with the post-AD 1500 Atlantic World has captivated archaeological attention over the past twenty years. Focusing on West Africa, this article gives a sense of the ... More

Archaeological Practice in Africa  

Graham Connah

Print publication date:
Jul 2013
Online publication date:
Sep 2013
The origins of archaeology were in Europe, so that its development in the African continent was initially shaped by European perceptions, subsequently modified by American influences. Only ... More

Archaeological Practice in the 21st Century: Reflecting on Archaeologist-Community Relationships in Sudan’s Nile Valley  

Jane Humphris, Rebecca Bradshaw, and Geoff Emberling

Print publication date:
Feb 2021
Online publication date:
Jan 2021
Archaeological research on the African continent developed hand in hand with European colonization. Although many countries became independent over sixty years ago, archaeological practice ... More

Archaeologies of the Bantu Expansion  

Pierre de Maret

Print publication date:
Jul 2013
Online publication date:
Sep 2013
This article examines the Bantu languages and their classification and provides archaeological background of the Bantu migration on Western and Central Africa and Great Lakes Africa. ... More

Archaeology and Education  

Amanda Esterhuysen and Paul J. Lane

Print publication date:
Jul 2013
Online publication date:
Sep 2013
This article focuses on efforts to promote formal teaching of archaeology, especially at primary and secondary levels. It stresses that an integrated strategy towards archaeology and ... More

Archaeology and Migration in Africa  

Ceri Ashley

Print publication date:
Jul 2013
Online publication date:
Sep 2013
The archaeology of Africa is littered with migration narratives. Migration events from Africa have shaped global history, from the hominin dispersal ‘Out of Africa’ to more recent forced ... More

The Archaeology of African Metalworking  

Shadreck Chirikure

Print publication date:
Jul 2013
Online publication date:
Sep 2013
Metalworking encompasses both the reductive smelting of ores to produce metal and its refining and forging to create usable objects. The advent of this process is one of the most ... More

The Archaeology of African Urbanism  

Paul Sinclair

Print publication date:
Jul 2013
Online publication date:
Sep 2013
This article discusses the different archaeological approaches to African urbanism, historical contributions of historians and social scientists on knowledge about urbanism, and the ... More

The Archaeology of Agricultural Intensification in Africa  

Daryl Stump

Print publication date:
Jul 2013
Online publication date:
Sep 2013
Both agricultural intensification and the study of the processes that prompt intensification have a long history in Africa. There are multiple reasons why a community might choose to ... More

The Archaeology of Amarna  

Anna Stevens

This essay assesses the body of archaeological research connected to the New Kingdom settlement site of Amarna (ancient Akhetaten), the short-lived capital of Egypt founded by king ... More

The Archaeology of Clan- and Lineage-Based Societies in Africa  

Matthew Davies

Print publication date:
Jul 2013
Online publication date:
Sep 2013
This article explores some examples of the archaeology of broadly ‘kin-based’ societies and the potential that such archaeology holds for understanding human action through time. It ... More

The Archaeology of Colonial Encounters in Eastern Africa  

Sarah Croucher

Print publication date:
Jul 2013
Online publication date:
Sep 2013
This article examines a dynamic and rapidly growing field in African archaeology. It covers a complex period of colonial history from the end of the fifteenth century, when the Portuguese ... More

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