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Adaptive Model-Predictive Climate Policies in a Multicountry Setting  

Thierry Bréchet, Carmen Camacho, and Vladimir M. Veliov

This chapter extends the use of integrated assessment models (IAMs) by defining rational policies based on predictive control and adaptive behavior. After a review of the main IAMs, the ... More

Agri-Environmental Policies: A Comparison of US and EU Experiences  

Roger Claassen, Joseph Cooper, Cristina Salvioni, and Marcella Veronesi

Although agri-environmental programs have a long history in the United States and the European Union, such programs began to play a larger role in federal farm policies in the 1980s, in ... More

Agricultural and Rural Development  

Salomón Salcedo, Fernando Soto-Baquero, José Graziano Da Silva, Rodrigo Castañeda Sepúlveda, and Sergio Gómez Echenique

Structural reforms implemented at both the macroeconomic and sector levels beginning in the 1980s played a fundamental role in the formation of Latin America's heterogeneous agricultural ... More

The Agricultural Sector  

Carlos José Caetano Bacha

This chapter analyzes the evolution of agriculture in Brazil from the early sixteenth century until the second decade of the twenty-first century. It focuses on seven domestic and external ... More

Agriculture, Growth, and Development in Africa: Theory and Practice  

Ousmane Badiane and Tsitsi Makombe

This chapter reviews the evolution of development theory and practice, the role of agriculture therein, and the pace of structural transformation in Africa over the last 50 years. The ... More

Applying Experiments to Land Economics: Public Information and Auction Efficiency in Ecosystem Service Markets  

Kent D. Messer, Joshua M. Duke, and Lori Lynch

The use of laboratory and field economic experiments to explore issues in land economics is increasingly popular as researchers identify problems that cannot be adequately addressed by ... More

Are Large Metropolitan Areas Still Viable?  

Edwin S. Mills

This chapter examines the functions of and prospects for large metropolitan areas (MAs) in the United States. It argues that the high cost of transporting people and goods is a necessary, ... More

An Assessment of Empirical Methods for Modeling Land Use  

Elena G. Irwin and Douglas H. Wrenn

This chapter provides a targeted review and assessment of current empirical methods most commonly used in economics to model spatially explicit land use and land use change. Empirical ... More

The Atmosphere as a Global Commons  

Ottmar Edenhofer, Christian Flachsland, Michael Jakob, and Kai Lessmann

This chapter analyzes global climate policy as the problem of transforming governance of the atmosphere from an open-access into a global commons regime. This involves several challenges. ... More

Bans and Labels with Controversial Food Technologies  

Stéphan Marette and Jutta Roosen

This article traces consumers' reluctance toward new technologies in the food domain and the nature of controversies. It argues that there are economic considerations in discussion of ... More

Brazil’s Agricultural Modernization and Embrapa  

Geraldo B. Martha Jr. and Eliseu Alves

Brazilian agriculture reinvented itself by targeting a science-based approach. Embrapa, the research arm of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, is recognized as key in this process. A ... More

The Challenge of Reforming Environmental Regulation in Russia  

Alexander A. Golub, Mikhail Kozeltsev, Alexander Martusevich, and Elena Strukova

The chapter considers improvements of environmental regulation as an important precondition for steady economic growth in Russia. Estimated costs of urban air pollution in Russia reach 4–5 ... More

Changing Nutritional Content of Food  

Helen H. Jensen

This article provides an overview of the changes in nutrient content of the food supply in the United States and then describes core concepts used in the assessment of the adequacy of (or ... More

Climate Change and Intergenerational Well-Being  

Jeffrey D. Sachs

The problem of climate change is typically discussed as a problem of intergenerational tradeoffs. Typically, it is supposed that the current generations must make sacrifices today for the ... More

Climate Change and Second-Best Abatement in a Multiregion World with Endogenous Growth  

Alfred Greiner

This chapter gives a brief survey of dynamic games in macro models of climate change and, then, studies a simple endogenous growth model that includes an energy balance model. The world is ... More

Climate Impacts on Agriculture: A Challenge to Complacency?  

Frank Ackerman and Elizabeth A. Stanton

Optimistic views of climate impacts on agriculture, drawing on 1990s research, have helped to justify relatively complacent approaches to climate policy. Newer research has identified more ... More

Climate Risk and Response in the Pacific Rim  

David Roland-Holst

Average temperatures in the Earth’s atmosphere have begun an upward trend that is largely irreversible over the next century, regardless of climate policy options currently under ... More

Climate Thresholds, Weather Extremes, and Catastrophic Losses  

Lopamudra Banerjee

This chapter reviews our existing state of knowledge on the threshold behavior of Earth’s climate system, and examines fluctuations in weather system attributed to greenhouse-induced ... More

Climate-Friendly Technological Change for Developing Countries  

David Popp

This chapter reviews the literature on climate-friendly technological change, with a focus on lessons relevant to developing countries. I begin by discussing the sources of environmental ... More

Connecting Ecosystem Services to Land Use: Implications for Valuation and Policy  

Robert J. Johnston, Stephen K. Swallow, Dana Marie Bauer, Emi Uchida, and Christopher M. Anderson

This chapter describes methods, challenges, and prospects involved in the evaluation of linkages among ecosystem services, land use, and economic values. It begins with a discussion of ... More