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‘A Promise Made is a Debt Unpaid’: Nietzsche on the Morality of Commitment and the Commitments of Morality  

Mark Migotti

Published in print:
Sep 2013
Published Online:
Dec 2013
This article discusses what we can learn about promising and about Nietzsche’s critique of morality from his discussion of sovereign promising in the opening sections of the second essay ... More

Absolute Knowledge and the Ethical Conclusion of the Phenomenology  

Dean Moyar

Published in print:
Aug 2017
Published Online:
Jun 2017
Hegel wrote in The Science of Logic that the deduction of the concept of science was accomplished at the end of the Phenomenology of Spirit in ‘Absolute Knowledge.’ This chapter links the ... More

Absolutism  

Mark Goldie

Published in print:
May 2011
Published Online:
Sep 2011
Absolutism is a nineteenth-century term designed precisely to address the mismatch between doctrine and power. The intellectual resources of absolutism were far older than the Renaissance ... More

Action and The Will  

John Hyman

Published in print:
Oct 2011
Published Online:
Jan 2012
In Philosophical Investigations, Ludwig Wittgenstein talks about action and the will. The main ideas we need to be acquainted with in order to understand Wittgenstein's remarks on this ... More

The Actual World  

Donald Rutherford

Published in print:
Dec 2018
Published Online:
Jul 2015
This chapter discusses Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz’s theory of the actual world as the best of all possible worlds. The chapter opens with Leibniz’s response to the two most basic questions ... More

Adam Smith  

James R. Otteson

Published in print:
Jan 2013
Published Online:
Apr 2013
The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759) is Adam Smith's major contribution to ethical thought. Although it underwent six revisions during his lifetime, its primary arguments did not change, ... More

Aesthetics  

Andreas Speer

Published in print:
May 2012
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article draws some lines that might indicate the direction in which one might consider the notion of medieval aesthetics. It chooses three examples that have always been at the centre ... More

Aesthetics  

Alexander Rueger

Published in print:
Jan 2011
Published Online:
May 2011
This article examines how aesthetics became a branch of psychology during the early modern period in which new references to taste, perfection, and harmony reinforced the emphasis on ... More

Aesthetics  

Paul Guyer

Published in print:
Feb 2015
Published Online:
May 2015
For most of its history, philosophers employed a cognitivist approach to the nature and value of aesthetic experience. In the eighteenth century, free play and emotional impact were also ... More

Alchemy and Chemistry  

Anne-Lise Rey

Published in print:
Dec 2018
Published Online:
Jun 2016
This chapter focuses on Leibniz’s philosophical reflections on alchemy and chemistry, beginning with his views on chemistry and natural philosophy, then considering his understanding of ... More

The Ambiguities of Malebranche’s Cartesianism  

Jean-Christophe Bardout

Published in print:
Apr 2019
Published Online:
May 2019
The reception of Descartes in the second half of the seventeenth century took very different forms, which have been the subject of numerous and documented studies. On this subject, we ... More

American Moral Philosophy  

Brad Hooker

Published in print:
Sep 2008
Published Online:
Sep 2009
The philosophy of language and philosophy of science were dominant from the middle 1930s for the next twenty-five years. During this period, many leading philosophers felt reluctant to ... More

The American Reception of Hegel (1830–1930)  

John Kaag and Kipton E. Jensen

Published in print:
Aug 2017
Published Online:
Jun 2017
This chapter outlines the reception of Hegel in the United States in the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century. Hegel dramatically influenced the formation of American ... More

Analysis Situs, the Foundations of Mathematics, and a Geometry of Space  

Vincenzo De Risi

Published in print:
Dec 2018
Published Online:
Jun 2015
This chapter focuses on Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz’s writings on analysis situs—a collection of mathematical and philosophical investigations into the foundations, development, and ... More

Analytic Aesthetics  

Peter Lamarque

Published in print:
Jun 2013
Published Online:
Oct 2013
Analytic philosophy gave serious attention to aesthetics relatively late and initial encounters were far from auspicious. William Elton’s anthology Aesthetics and Language (1954) marks a ... More

Analytic Philosophy in America  

Scott Soames

Published in print:
Sep 2008
Published Online:
Sep 2009
In understanding the transition to the analytic period in America, it is important to remember that analytic philosophy is neither a fixed body of substantive doctrine, a precise ... More

Analytic Philosophy, the Analytic School, and British Philosophy  

John Skorupski

Published in print:
Jun 2013
Published Online:
Oct 2013
I propose that we distinguish between the ‘Analytic school’ proper—which should be recognized as both a distinctive movement in twentieth-century philosophy and an aspect of ... More

Analytic Political Philosophy  

Jonathan Wolff

Published in print:
Jun 2013
Published Online:
Oct 2013
Political philosophy is not, initially, easy to place in terms of the foundation and early development of analytic philosophy. If, following the traditional understanding, one takes ... More

Analytic–Synthetic and A Priori–A Posteriori History  

Brian Weatherson

Published in print:
May 2016
Published Online:
Aug 2016
This article focuses on the distinction between analytic truths and synthetic truths (i.e. every truth that isn’t analytic), and between a priori truths and a posteriori truths (i.e. every ... More

Anarchism  

Marshall Shatz

Published in print:
May 2011
Published Online:
Sep 2011
Anarchism rejects the state as an inherently despotic institution that must be abolished in order for human nature to flower. This does not mean the absence of social order, however, for ... More

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