Income inequality in Brazil, already high, increased after the military coup of 1964 and remained very high even after democratization in the 1980s. It decreased substantially in the period 2001–2014, after inflation was controlled. The Gini index of the per capita household income dropped from 0.594 in 2001 to 0.513 in 2014. The determinants of this decline in inequality are analyzed considering the components of that income and how each one affected changes in inequality, showing the impact of changes in the remuneration of private sector employees and in pensions paid by the government, as well as federal transfer programs. Changes in education lie behind the first of these effects, and the increase of the minimum wage reinforced all three. The economic crises after 2014 interrupted the process of decline, and among economically active persons, inequality even increased from 2014 to 2015. Measures to further reduce inequality are suggested.
Casino gambling has become a popular economic development strategy. This chapter examines the impact of casinos on employment as determined by an econometric analysis of state-level data for eight industries. The results suggest that the opening of casinos leads to employment increases in the arts and entertainment, accommodations, and food and beverage industries. At the same time, it leads to decreases in employment in management and professional services, technology, and manufacturing. Also evident is the impact of demographic changes and computer technology. These findings suggest that the expansion of commercial gaming has a positive effect on regional employment in some sectors while having a negative effect in other sectors, especially in those states with competing gambling venues.
Judith K. Hellerstein and David Neumark
Celia Lessa Kerstenetzky and Danielle Carusi Machado
After presenting general facts concerning the evolution of the labor market in Brazil over the 2004–2014 decade, this chapter documents the outstanding formalization process that took place, as well as its main consequences and driving forces. In this period, the Brazilian economy achieved sizable GDP growth rates. Although far below Chinese or Indian performances, in contrast to the experiences of the latter, Brazilian growth was notable for being (re)distributive (i.e. associated with important reductions in inequality). In particular, the new growth path was accompanied by a sustained expansion in formal employment, an increase in labor incomes, particularly of earnings at the bottom end of wage distribution, and a consistent decline in wage inequality. Thus, the chapter discusses some of the interventions that led to these achievements and the challenges now faced if these achievements are to be preserved or built upon.
Barbara G. Brents
This chapter examines how brothels are regulated in Nevada. More specifically, it looks at how local municipalities in Nevada—the only US state that has legalized prostitution—regulate prostitution markets. It begins with an overview of Nevada’s legal indoor prostitution, the history and development of legal brothels, and brothel laws and regulations. It then considers how sex workers in Nevada brothels are regulated, the present state of brothel organization and market, and rural and suburban brothels. It also discusses how the legal system functions to regulate worker health and safety in Nevada brothels. The chapter argues that Nevada’s brothels are not some aberrant form of organized deviance but rather are part and parcel of today’s neoliberal consumer economy. The political climate that has allowed and sustains legal brothels in Nevada reflects contemporary neoliberal politics and a “morality” in which personal consumer choice is elevated to a moral right.