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Aggressive Elites and Vulnerable Entrepreneurs: Trust and Cooperation in the Shadow of Conflict  

Halvor Mehlum and Karl Moene

Print publication date:
Apr 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article explores the tendency for poverty and conflict, as well as for prosperity and peace, to reinforce one another, examining two specific factors. One is the type of rents that ... More

Cost-Benefit Analysis  

Robin Boadway

Print publication date:
Jun 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This is an overview of the methods used to evaluate projects or policies when a normative approach is taken based on individual preferences. The evaluation of individual welfare change is ... More

Econometric Evaluation of Health Policies  

Andrew M. Jones and Nigel Rice

Print publication date:
Apr 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article devotes considerable attention to new econometric methodologies that have been used to assess health care econometrics. The goal of evaluative research is to identify the ... More

Econometrics of Economics and Human Biology  

Gregory Colman and Dhaval Dave

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Jan 2016
Many questions arising in research in economics and human biology cannot be studied through experimental manipulation, making the ideal randomized controlled trial (RCT) infeasible. Often ... More

The Economics of Vaccines  

Frank A. Sloan

Print publication date:
Apr 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article discusses preventive vaccines, focusing on features that differentiate these vaccines from other biopharmaceuticals. The external costs of infectious diseases imply external ... More

Empirical Evidence on the Value of Pharmaceuticals  

Craig Garthwaite and Mark Duggan

Print publication date:
Apr 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article begins by summarizing the existing evidence concerning the effect of pharmaceuticals on overall health. It then examines evidence of the health benefits of pharmaceuticals for ... More

Globalization and International Conflict: Can Foreign Direct Investment Increase Cooperation Among Nations?  

Solomon W. Polachek, Carlos Seiglie, and Jun Xiang

Print publication date:
Apr 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
There is a long-standing literature that has examined how international trade itself might induce cooperation and peace among states potentially in conflict. In particular, despite some ... More

Health Utility Measurement  

Donna Rowen and John Brazier

Print publication date:
Apr 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Measuring and valuing health is a major component of economic evaluation, meaning that health utility measurement has been growing in popularity in recent years due to the increasing ... More

Measuring inequality and Inequity in Health and Health Care  

Eddy Van Doorslaer and Tom Van Ourti

Print publication date:
Apr 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article examines the measurement of the success of the redistributive function describing strategies used for measuring the inequality of the outcomes of a health care system in terms ... More

Measuring Poverty: A Proposal  

Thomas Pogge and Scott Wisor

Print publication date:
Jun 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter documents a participatory approach to developing a new, gender-sensitive measure of deprivation that improves upon existing measures of poverty and gender equity. Over three ... More

Measuring Value: Pharmacoeconomics Theory and Practice  

Adrian Towse, Michael Drummond, and Corinna Sorenson

Print publication date:
Apr 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Government-run or -regulated health care systems have adopted complex systems of economic regulation to control pharmaceutical expenditures, which are generally an ad hoc mix of historical ... More

Methods For Measuring Aggregate Costs Of Conflict  

Javier Gardeazabal

Print publication date:
Apr 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Focusing on methodologies of measuring the costs of conflict, this article provides a review of primarily econometric methods for cost measurement using models as guides to counterfactual ... More

The Methods of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis to Inform Decisions about the Use of Health Care Interventions and Programs  

Simon Walker, Mark Sculpher, and Michael Drummond

Print publication date:
Apr 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Health care systems exhibit their features and nuances that impose constraints on the appropriate way to analyze interventions and make decisions about their implementation. This article ... More

Multidimensional Indicators of Inequality and Poverty  

Satya Chakravarty and Maria Ana Lugo

Print publication date:
Jun 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter reviews the main features of multidimensional indices of inequality and poverty. For each of these cases, the discussion is divided into two approaches: a direct approach, ... More

Multidimensional Poverty Indices: A Critical Assessment  

Jean-Yves Duclos and Luca Tiberti

Print publication date:
Jun 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter reviews and assesses issues involved in the measurement of multidimensional poverty, in particular the soundness of the various “axioms” and properties often imposed on ... More

Price Indexes for Prescription Drugs: A Review of the Issues  

Ana Aizcorbe and Nicole Nestoriak

Print publication date:
Apr 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article begins by describing the many challenges of constructing meaningful price indexes in medical markets. It examines practical issues associated with how prescription drug price ... More

QALY-Based Cost-Effectiveness Analysis  

Jose Maria Abellan, Carmen Herrero, and Jose Luis Pinto

Print publication date:
Jun 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter introduces the main ideas about the use of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) in the evaluation of health policies. It starts by explaining the theoretical underpinnings of ... More

Twins Studies in Economics  

Jere Behrman

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2015
This chapter describes strengths and limitations of three twins methods developed in economics: control for unobserved genetic and family background endowments using monozygotic (MZ) twins ... More

Understanding Differences in Mortality and Morbidity by Sex: The Role of Biological, Social, and Economic Factors  

Barbara Schone

Print publication date:
Jul 2018
Online publication date:
Oct 2017
There are important differences in the health of men and women. While women typically report worse health than men and suffer from more health conditions, they also live longer. These ... More

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