E. Bisesi and Luke Windsor
The question of how musical structure may be expressed and communicated in music performance has been studied in past decades both theoretically and empirically. Underlying principles have been extracted, and models of the relationship between expression and musical structure formulated. The first part of this chapter reviews the main approaches to measuring expression in music performance. A list of examples is provided, concerning measuring techniques, software and tools for extracting expressive features from audio performances, and different research approaches. The second part overviews quantitative models for expression and communication of musical structure and their empirical evaluation, including the evaluation music performance rendering. Consideration is given to both general principles of music performance, and individual differences in performance style and their relation to musical structure, emotion, and meaning.
Jan J. Koenderink
Visual awareness is commonly considered as due to a complex algorithmic system, implemented by the brain, processing raw optical structure. It may be called ‘inverse optics’, and is an instance of a causal theory of perception. Such concepts are hardly acceptable from a biological perspective. A viable alternative is visual awareness as a user interface. This implies that vision is not ‘veridical’; indeed, interfaces are designed to screen the user from an underlying complexity. They promote biological fitness. Interface objects, like the icons on a computer desktop, are idiosyncratic templates. Gestalts are identified as instances.
Arreed F. Barabasz and Marianne Barabasz
As a result of new sophisticated neurophysiological techniques and technologies, the understanding of the neurological foundations of the hypnotic state has been greatly extended. And the sophistication in brain response measurement has moved well beyond what most researchers in the field in 1992 ever imagined might someday be possible. This article presents current experimentally controlled research findings in language understandable to hypnosis researchers and clinicians whose expertise lies outside neurophysiology. It particularly summarizes the articles presented in the April and July 2003 special issues of the International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, as well as additional significant studies that have appeared in the literature since then. To have a good understanding of the data from the critically important articles, this article clarifies some common misunderstandings that have plagued the study of hypnosis and the brain. It further describes modern brain imaging techniques too.
Jan J. Koenderink
‘Facts’ of physics, experimental psychology (that is dry physiology), and experimental phenomenology exist on disparate ontological levels. Any objective–subjective distinction is necessarily different in each case. Consequences for design and analysis of empirical research methods are discussed, mainly through generic examples. Conventional physical measurements and psychophysical methods are succinctly discussed. Experimental phenomenology is perhaps the least familiar case. For this case a few paradigmatic instances are analyzed and discussed in some detail.
John Dunlosky, Michael L. Mueller, and Keith W. Thiede
Research on metamemory focuses on a core set of issues that pertain to people’s beliefs about memory, their monitoring of memory, and their control of memory. To address these issues, researchers have used variants of a small set of methods, which often involve using standard memory methods and then having participants make judgments about their memory or control different phases of learning. Despite the overlap of methods with standard memory research, metamemory research poses some unique problems and pitfalls that can make interpretation of results tricky. The present chapter overviews the core issues addressed by the majority of metamemory research and describes the general methods typically used to address them. Most important, it highlights some of the problems and pitfalls of metamemory research and offers some suggestions on how to solve or sidestep them.
This chapter presents the philosophical roots of phenomenology, starting from Brentano’s empirical and descriptive psychology based on the key concepts of intentional reference, mental phenomenon, and presentation. Also discussed are the experimental developments of the theory by the Gestalt schools of Berlin and Graz, and their different viewpoints on perceptual organization. Finally outlined is the legacy of the theory in contemporary experimental phenomenology, which highlights the differences between the psychophysical, neurophysiological, and phenomenological analyses of perception. Unpacking the distinctions between the concepts of information, psychical/physical phenomena, reality, whole/part, Gestalt quality, and meaning from a phenomenological viewpoint, the chapter concludes by discussing the quest for a science of psychology per se, able both to describe and to explain phenomena in first person account.
WordNet, a large lexical database of English, was conceived as a model of human semantic organization. Evidence from timing experiments, association norms, and distributional properties of words supported a semantic network model in which words are interlinked via a small number of lexical and conceptual relations. Its large coverage and unique structure, which allows automatic systems to detect and quantify semantic relatedness among words, soon made WordNet an invaluable tool for natural language processing tasks. Information retrieval, document summarization, and machine translation crucially require word sense discrimination and disambiguation. Wordnets have been built in dozens of languages and for specific technical sublanguages, and the number of applications in research, language technology and pedagogy has grown. Although WordNet’s central focus has shifted from its psycholinguistic origins, its design, based on theories about the structure of the human mental lexicon, is validated as a sound approach to representing the meanings of words.