Fredrik Ullén, Örjan de Manzano, and Miriam A. Mosing
This chapter summarizes key findings from the literature on neuroanatomical and functional correlates of expertise, concluding that expertise is related to macroanatomical properties of domain-relevant brain regions and ultrastructural properties of both the gray and the white matter. The consequence of these neural adaptations is a capacity for vastly more efficient performance of domain-specific tasks. In functional terms, this depends on multiple mechanisms that are situated at different levels of neural processing. These mechanisms include automation and alterations in functional connectivity, as well as specializations within memory systems and sensorimotor systems that optimize the processing of information that is relevant for the particular domain of expertise. Finally, the chapter discusses the neural mechanisms of expertise from the perspective of new models that emphasize a multifactorial perspective and take into account both genetic and environmental influences on expertise and its acquisition.
Steven Poelmans and Elena O. Stepanova
This chapter offers a review of neuroscientific principles and findings that inform the understanding of the intraindividual and interindividual experience of work–life conflict and enrichment. Advances in neuroscientific research have generated a better understanding of different basic processes that underlie role conflict, such as expectations, attention, multitasking, and stress. In the tradition of positive psychology we have seen a significant shift in work–family research toward a positive approach, complementing a conflict perspective with a focus on facilitation, enrichment, and balance. In this chapter we highlight two resources that are key for understanding positive spillover effects: energy/dopaminergic levels and social support. Inspired by insights, theories, and methods in neuroscience, we formulate recommendations for future interdisciplinary research in the work–family research domain.