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Brain stimulation in neurorehabilitation  

Friedhelm C. Hummel and Leonardo G. Cohen

Print publication date:
Jan 2008
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article explains the role of brain stimulation in neurorehabilitation. The outline of this article is formed by the characterization of some of the problems faced in the field of ... More

Broca’s Aphasia and Grammatical Processing  

Lynn M. Maher

Print publication date:
Jan 2018
Online publication date:
Oct 2016
Broca’s aphasia serves as a platform for discussions of the cognitive and neural mechanisms of sentence production and how those systems break down in individuals with damage in left ... More

Changes in TMS Measures induced by repetitive TMS  

Joseph Classen and Katja Stefan

Print publication date:
Jan 2008
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article reviews several protocols of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)-induced plasticity. rTMS, when applied to the motor cortex or other cortical regions of the ... More

Combining brain imaging with brain stimulation: causality and connectivity  

Tomáš Paus

Print publication date:
Jan 2008
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article establishes the concept of a methodological approach to combine brain imaging with brain stimulation. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a tool that allows perturbing ... More

Concurrent TMS and functional magnetic resonance imaging: methods and current advances  

Sven Bestmann, Christian C. Ruff, Jon Driver, and Felix Blankenburg

Print publication date:
Jan 2008
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Transcranial magnetic stimulation is used for a wide range of applications in cognitive, clinical, and neuroscience. However, the precise physiological mechanisms by which TMS influences ... More

Cortical dynamics and oscillations: What controls what we see?  

Cees van Leeuwen

Print publication date:
Aug 2015
Online publication date:
Aug 2014
Visual perception requires parallel processing of distributed information. To achieve true parallelism, in which multiple patterns can be processed simultaneously, dynamic synchronization ... More

The cortical silent period  

Alexander Wolters, Ulf Ziemann, and Reiner Benecke

Print publication date:
Jan 2008
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
The cortical silent period (cSP) refers to an interruption of voluntary muscle contraction by transcranial stimulation of the contralateral motor cortex. This article summarizes the ... More

Cultural Values Modulate Emotional Processing in Human Amygdala  

Tetsuya Iidaka and Tokiko Harada

Print publication date:
Dec 2015
Online publication date:
Apr 2016
This chapter reviews how cultural values modulate emotional processing in the amygdala? Here we discuss a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment whereby Japanese participants ... More

Design and analysis of motor-evoked potential data in pediatric neurobehavioral disorder investigations  

Donald L. Gilbert

Print publication date:
Jan 2008
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article discusses how transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to study the pathophysiological substrata of pediatric neurological and neurobehavioural disorders and to ... More

Direct current brain polarization  

Eric M. Wassermann

Print publication date:
Jan 2008
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
The transcranial application of weak direct current (DC) to the brain is an effective neuromodulation technique that has had more than a century of experimental and therapeutic use. Focal ... More

Electromagnetism  

Charles M. Epstein

Print publication date:
Jan 2008
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article elucidates on the concept of electromagnetism and electromagnetic induction with a view to explaining the theory of magnetic stimulation, used to cure diseases in human ... More

Emergence of Higher Cognitive Functions: Reorganization of Large-Scale Brain Networks During Childhood And Adolescence  

Pedro M. Paz-Alonso, Silvia A. Bunge, and Simona Ghetti

In the present chapter, we first provide an overview of neurodevelopmental changes in brain structure and function, which have implications for the development of higher cognitive ... More

The Encultured Genome: Molecular Evidence for Recent Divergent Evolution in Human Neurotransmitter Genes  

Chuansheng Chen, Robert K. Moyzis, Xuemei Lei, Chunhui Chen, and Qi Dong

Print publication date:
Dec 2015
Online publication date:
Apr 2016
This chapter aims to stipulate a line of research on the role of culture in recent human evolution. We discuss and evaluate several common arguments against recent human evolution. Second, ... More

Evaluating the interaction between cortical inhibitory and excitatory circuits measured by TMS  

Zafiris J. Daskalakis and Robert Chen

Print publication date:
Jan 2008
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Transcranial magnetic stimulation was first introduced in the late 1980s. Numerous studies have used TMS as an investigational tool to elucidate cortical physiology and to probe cognitive ... More

From Molecules to Metaphor: Outlooks on Synesthesia Research  

V.S. Ramachandran and David Brang

Print publication date:
Dec 2013
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
Synaesthesia has been described as a perceptual experience in which a stimulus presented through one modality will spontaneously evoke a sensation experienced in an unrelated modality. ... More

Genes, Brain, and Culture Through a 5-HTT Lens  

Michio Nomura

Print publication date:
Dec 2015
Online publication date:
Apr 2016
How do genes affect the human brain, cognition, and culture? This chapter focuses on these interrelated areas through the lens of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), specifically examining ... More

The Genetics and Inheritance of Synesthesia  

Julian E. Asher and Duncan A. Carmichael

Print publication date:
Dec 2013
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
Synaesthesia is a neurodevelopmental condition characterised by anomalous sensory perceptions and associated alterations in cognitive function. This chapter summarises what is known about ... More

Higher cognitive functions: memory and reasoning  

Simone Rossi, Stefano F. Cappa, and Paolo Maria Rossini

Print publication date:
Jan 2008
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a sophisticated approach for interfering with human memory and reasoning due to its ability to transiently interfere with the functions of the ... More

Higher visual cognition: search, neglect, attention, and eye movements  

Jacinta OʼShea and Matthew F. S. Rushworth

Print publication date:
Jan 2008
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article reviews the contribution of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) research to the understanding of attention, eye movements, visual search, and neglect. It considers how TMS ... More

Identifying a Cultural Resource: Neural Mechanisms Underlying Familial Influence on Adolescent Risk Taking  

Eva H. Telzer, Andrew J. Fuligni, and Adriana Galvan

Print publication date:
Dec 2015
Online publication date:
Apr 2016
Family obligation, which implies children’s role in the support and assistance of their family, is a fundamental aspect of family life. Family obligation has important implications for the ... More

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