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Cortical Plasticity  

Sally A. Marik and Charles D. Gilbert

Published Online:
Apr 2018
The cerebral cortex is a learning engine. The ability to encode information about sensory experience or practiced movements is a universal property of all cortical areas. This capacity, ... More

Developmental Consequences of Trauma on Brain Circuits  

Maya Opendak and Regina Sullivan

Published Online:
Apr 2018
Traumatic experiences can be challenging at any age, but recent evidence has highlighted the trauma experienced from an attachment figure as particularly detrimental. Fear, or threat, ... More

Developmental Cortical Plasticity in the Central Auditory System  

Michele N. Insanally and Robert C. Froemke

Published Online:
Dec 2018
The brain has a tremendous ability to change as a result of experience. While the brain is plastic throughout life, during early development, the nervous system seems much more sensitive ... More

Environmental Enrichment and Neuronal Plasticity  

Gregory D. Clemenson, Fred H. Gage, and Craig E.L. Stark

This chapter reviews the literature on environmental enrichment and specifically discusses its influence on the hippocampus of the brain. In animal models, the term “environmental ... More

Mediators of Glucocorticoid-Regulated Adaptive Plasticity  

Bruce S. McEwen and Conor Liston

Published Online:
Nov 2017
The hippocampus has provided a gateway for understanding of how stress, as well as sex hormones, affect cognitive process and has revealed adaptive plasticity in neuronal structure and ... More

Organization and Plasticity of Cortical Inhibition  

Bernard Kripkee and Robert C. Froemke

Published Online:
May 2017
Plasticity of inhibitory synapses keeps inhibition in balance and in register with excitation when changes occur in excitatory synapses. Inhibition has many functions to perform, and there ... More

Oxytocin and Plasticity of Social Behavior  

Elizabeth A.D. Hammock

Published Online:
Sep 2017
Oxytocin plays well-known roles in modulating social behavior in mammals. Oxytocin function depends on the brain circuitry it modulates, which is determined by the cell-type specific ... More

Pharmacological Manipulation of Critical Period Plasticity  

Ramon Guirado and Eero Castrén

Neuronal networks are refined through an activity-dependent competition during critical periods of early postnatal development. Recent studies have shown that critical period plasticity is ... More

Regulation of CNS Plasticity Through the Extracellular Matrix  

Philippa M. Warren, Stuart M. Dickens, Sylvain Gigout, James W. Fawcett, and Jessica C.F. Kwok

Published Online:
Oct 2018
Contrary to established dogma, the central nervous system (CNS) has a capacity for regeneration and is moderately plastic. Traditionally, such changes have been recognized through ... More