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Ancient Versions and Textual Transmission of the Old Testament  

Gerard J. Norton

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article first gives a schematic outline of the history of the Hebrew text in four stages. It then presents the elements that readers will meet in modern editions of that text. These ... More

Assessing the Text‐Critical Theories of the Hebrew Bible after Qumran  

Ronald S. Hendel

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
The biblical texts from Qumran are the oldest manuscripts of the Hebrew Bible, dating from the mid-third century BCE through the first century CE. Prior to the discovery of the Qumran ... More

Augustine and Pelagius on the Epistle to the Romans  

Mark Edwards

Print publication date:
Jan 2011
Online publication date:
May 2011
Perhaps no scriptural passage has divided the church so bitterly, or so often, as the ninth article of the Epistle to the Romans. Predestinarian readings take two forms, one of which ... More

Authoritative Scriptures and the Dead Sea Scrolls  

Timothy H. Lim

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
The approach advocated in this article is the understanding of canon as authoritative literature that is binding for the Qumran community. The distinctive features of this approach are: ... More

The Classical Sources on the Essenes and the Scrolls Communities  

Joan E. Taylor

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
The nature of groups named in classical sources as ‘Essenes’ was considered in scholarship of Second Temple Judaism long before the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, but discussion of the ... More

Constructing Ancient Judaism from the Scrolls  

Martin Goodman

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
Most of the Dead Sea Scrolls can be classified as religious documents of one kind or another, and all the studies since 1947 that have been devoted to their significance can be ... More

The Construction of Gender in the New Testament  

Colleen M. Conway

Print publication date:
Nov 2014
Online publication date:
Apr 2014
This chapter begins with a brief overview of the theorists who have shaped gender analytical work on the New Testament, especially the application of gender theory in classical studies. It ... More

The Continuity of Biblical Interpretation in the Qumran Scrolls and Rabbinic Literature  

Bilhah Nitzan

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
Considering Qumranic hermeneutical systems with regard to form, this article distinguishes between ‘internal interpretation’ integrated within rewritten biblical books, such as the Temple ... More

The Contribution of the Qumran Scrolls to the Study of Ancient Jewish Liturgy  

Daniel K. Falk

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
Prayer as a service to God by the people is one of the most far reaching of religious practices, forming a central part of the religious practice of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam; yet ... More

Critical Issues in the Investigation of the Scrolls and the New Testament  

Jörg Frey

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
From the very earliest period after the first discoveries, the Qumran scrolls have been of major interest to New Testament (NT) scholars, and, in retrospect, the impact of the scrolls has ... More

Early Christian Apocryphal Literature  

Stephen J. Shoemaker

Print publication date:
Sep 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
The apocryphal literature of early Christianity consists primarily of narrative traditions about the life and teaching of Jesus, his family, and his apostles, as well as letters, ... More

Exploring the Mystical Background of the Dead Sea Scrolls  

James R. Davila

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
The Dead Sea Scrolls provide considerable evidence for a vibrant mystical tradition that involved not only theoretical musings about the heavenly realm based on scriptural exegesis, but ... More

The Growth of the Apocrypha  

Alison Salvesen

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Both apocryphal and pseudepigraphical works are increasingly studied at an academic level for what they reveal of the religious preoccupations of their writers and the communities that ... More

The Growth of the New Testament  

John M. Court

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article surveys the growth of the New Testament. The story of the movement in the first centuries towards the canon of the New Testament has three particularly significant historical ... More

The Growth of the Old Testament  

Reinhard G. Kratz

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article discusses the growth of the Old Testament, which presupposes the Israelite-Judaean scribal culture. From it the biblical tradition took over the practices, knowledge, and ... More

Halakhah between the Dead Sea Scrolls and Rabbinic Literature  

Aharon Shemesh

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
It is difficult to overestimate the importance of the Dead Sea Scrolls for knowledge of halakhah in late antiquity. Because of this finding, there is now original first-hand information on ... More

Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek in the Qumran Scrolls  

Jan Joosten

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
From a linguist's point of view, the Qumran community was situated in the eye of a storm. In the late Second Temple period, Judaea was multilingual and culturally torn. Hebrew was favoured ... More

Iranian Connections in the Dead Sea Scrolls  

Albert De Jong

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
Zurvanism is a problematic subject in the history of the study of Zoroastrianism, for it was once hailed as the greatest challenge to ‘orthodox’ Zoroastrianism and many irreconcilable ... More

Khirbet Qumran and Its Environs  

Eric M. Meyers

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
This article makes it clear that there is a connection between the caves and the settlement of Khirbet Qumran. Although no scrolls have been found at the site, there is evidence in the ... More

Martyr Passions and Hagiography  

Susan Ashbrook Harvey

Print publication date:
Sep 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
A large body of literature survives from the early Christian period, devoted first to accounts of martyrdom suffered on behalf of the emerging religion and then to lives of exemplary ... More

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