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Abraham and Authenticity  

Reuven Firestone

Print publication date:
Oct 2015
Online publication date:
Nov 2015
The Abrahamic religions recognize Abraham as the first to arrive at the truth of monotheism and live out the ideal relationship with God. He is the archetype of the stalwart religious ... More

Ancient Versions and Textual Transmission of the Old Testament  

Gerard J. Norton

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article first gives a schematic outline of the history of the Hebrew text in four stages. It then presents the elements that readers will meet in modern editions of that text. These ... More

Apocalypticism and Messianism  

Michael A. Knibb

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
The beliefs of the movement that lies behind the scrolls were influenced by the eschatological ideas of the early Enochic writings and by the Book of Daniel, and although the movement does ... More

Archaeology  

John R. Bartlett

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article discusses archaeology's impact on biblical scholarship, especially over the last two centuries. It describes the Christian pilgrims, explorers, travellers, map makers, and ... More

Archaeology  

John R. Bartlett

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article discusses the contributions of archaeology to biblical scholarship. Biblical scholarship needs the archaeologist as it needs the anthropologist, the epigraphist, the ... More

Assessing the Text‐Critical Theories of the Hebrew Bible after Qumran  

Ronald S. Hendel

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
The biblical texts from Qumran are the oldest manuscripts of the Hebrew Bible, dating from the mid-third century BCE through the first century CE. Prior to the discovery of the Qumran ... More

Authoritative Scriptures and the Dead Sea Scrolls  

Timothy H. Lim

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
The approach advocated in this article is the understanding of canon as authoritative literature that is binding for the Qumran community. The distinctive features of this approach are: ... More

The Classical Sources on the Essenes and the Scrolls Communities  

Joan E. Taylor

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
The nature of groups named in classical sources as ‘Essenes’ was considered in scholarship of Second Temple Judaism long before the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, but discussion of the ... More

Constructing Ancient Judaism from the Scrolls  

Martin Goodman

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
Most of the Dead Sea Scrolls can be classified as religious documents of one kind or another, and all the studies since 1947 that have been devoted to their significance can be ... More

The Continuity of Biblical Interpretation in the Qumran Scrolls and Rabbinic Literature  

Bilhah Nitzan

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
Considering Qumranic hermeneutical systems with regard to form, this article distinguishes between ‘internal interpretation’ integrated within rewritten biblical books, such as the Temple ... More

The Contribution of the Qumran Scrolls to the Study of Ancient Jewish Liturgy  

Daniel K. Falk

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
Prayer as a service to God by the people is one of the most far reaching of religious practices, forming a central part of the religious practice of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam; yet ... More

Critical Issues in the Investigation of the Scrolls and the New Testament  

Jörg Frey

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
From the very earliest period after the first discoveries, the Qumran scrolls have been of major interest to New Testament (NT) scholars, and, in retrospect, the impact of the scrolls has ... More

Exploring the Mystical Background of the Dead Sea Scrolls  

James R. Davila

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
The Dead Sea Scrolls provide considerable evidence for a vibrant mystical tradition that involved not only theoretical musings about the heavenly realm based on scriptural exegesis, but ... More

The Growth of the Apocrypha  

Alison Salvesen

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Both apocryphal and pseudepigraphical works are increasingly studied at an academic level for what they reveal of the religious preoccupations of their writers and the communities that ... More

The Growth of the Old Testament  

Reinhard G. Kratz

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article discusses the growth of the Old Testament, which presupposes the Israelite-Judaean scribal culture. From it the biblical tradition took over the practices, knowledge, and ... More

Halakhah between the Dead Sea Scrolls and Rabbinic Literature  

Aharon Shemesh

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
It is difficult to overestimate the importance of the Dead Sea Scrolls for knowledge of halakhah in late antiquity. Because of this finding, there is now original first-hand information on ... More

Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek in the Qumran Scrolls  

Jan Joosten

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
From a linguist's point of view, the Qumran community was situated in the eye of a storm. In the late Second Temple period, Judaea was multilingual and culturally torn. Hebrew was favoured ... More

Iranian Connections in the Dead Sea Scrolls  

Albert De Jong

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
Zurvanism is a problematic subject in the history of the study of Zoroastrianism, for it was once hailed as the greatest challenge to ‘orthodox’ Zoroastrianism and many irreconcilable ... More

Israel from the Rise of Hellenisim to 70 ce  

Lester L. Grabbe

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article discusses Jewish history from the rise of Hellenism to 70 CE. The Hellenistic and Roman periods belong to what is often referred to as the ‘Second Temple period’ – a ... More

Israel to the End of the Persian Period: History, Social, Political, and Economic background  

J. W. Rogerson

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article discusses the social, political, and economic background of Israel to the end of the Persian period, based upon extra-biblical texts, archaeological discoveries, and ... More

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