Tasha S. Philpot and Hanes Walton Jr.
This chapter describes the evolution of African-American political participation. Beginning with early findings in Black political participation, it discusses the major paradigm shifts in this research and their catalysts. The chapter concludes by providing a roadmap for future research in the field.
The most important scholarly finding about the American state is how the politics of race and racial inequality have shaped all aspects of the state’s structure and policy outcomes. The American state performs and combines the standard functions of maintaining order, delivering public policy, monopolizing the legitimate use of violence and maintaining revenues, but always with effect on the politics of race. The American state’s embrace of the politics of racial inequality mark it out as a key case in comparative studies for researchers developing and testing arguments about democratic states with complex histories and fragmentary institutional arrangements.
Contrary to a view that sees racism as an aberration within American liberalism or largely outside the broader dynamics of American politics, historical institutional scholars often emphasize the central place of racial conflict in American politics and especially in the development of the American state. Although racial conflict has been an obstacle to state-building, struggles over race also enhanced state authority in ways that defy conceptions of a weak American state. Approaching American politics through an historical institutional lens helps underscore the way efforts to confront long standing racial divisions and conflict helped to institutionalize key political and social rights.
Terri E. Givens
Despite a long history of colonialism, slavery, immigration, and ethnic conflict in Europe, issues of racism and discrimination have only recently gained the attention of policy makers in many European countries. In this chapter, I will examine how the issue of race has been dealt with in the literature related to European politics and discuss the development of “race relations” or antidiscrimination policy, particularly the situation in France, Britain, and Germany. I will focus on the development of antidiscrimination prior to harmonization under the EU’s racial equality directive (RED) as an example of the public policy implications of immigration and race in Europe.
In the scheme of history, most political deliberation has taken place outside the modern West. But the study of deliberation, however extensive it has become, has largely ignored this wider world. Examining how deliberation manifests across different societies has considerable promise for both explanatory and normative political theory. To explain why people deliberate—which should be among the first questions deliberative democrats ponder—it is first necessary to examine how people deliberate, and why this varies. Doing so with a comparative and historical perspective, even in the preliminary fashion presented here, reveals how social and political ideals can motivate and shape deliberative practice. And there are normative stakes in this agenda. If collective deliberation is to prevail in global governance, we must fashion political ideals which motivate diverse peoples to come together in discourse, rather than confront their problems, or compound them, by less desirable means.
David Lublin and Shaun Bowler
Every democratic process short of unanimity produces opinion minorities. Political divisions along anchored demographic characteristics like language, religion, race, or ethnicity challenge pluralist models of governance by threatening to entrench the exclusion of minority groups from political power. Especially when attuned to ethnic geography, electoral engineering through manipulation of the electoral system and other rules governing the electoral process, such as boundary delimitation, reserved seats, ballot-access requirements, and ethnic party bans, can help promote either inclusion or exclusion of minorities. Ensuring long-term interethnic peace has proved more difficult. Scholars continue to grapple with how to ensure minority inclusion without freezing existing divisions.
James D. Fearon
This article studies ethnic mobilization and ethnic violence. It reviews some of the salient empirical patterns that concern cross-national and temporal variation in the politicization of ethnicity and ethnic violence. It also tries to explain the prevalence and variation of politicized ethnicity, and then arguments proposing to explain the occurrence of ethnic violence.
This article focuses on ethnic conflict and ethnic identity. It begins by differentiating these from nationalism, national identity, and civil wars. It presents a survey of the explanations provided in four traditions of enquiry, and also provides an analysis of the inadequacies or merits of arguments within each tradition. The article also reviews the evolution of arguments related to this field.
Matthew Lange and Klaus Schlichte
This chapter considers how ethnic diversity affects state transformations in the Global South. It focuses on the impact of ethnicity on changes in state borders, decentralization, consociationalism, the militarization of states, state capacity, and the communalization of state power. As part of the analysis, the chapter also compares the region with the core OECD. While consociationalism and decentralization are most relevant to the core OECD, and while much attention has been paid to how ethnic movements can transform state borders, all three are relatively rare in the Global South. Alternatively, ethnic mobilization and conflict have had much greater effects on the militarization of states, state capacity, and the communalization of state power.
Ethnic and nationalist movements display a wide variety of demands, activities, and goals but they all involve the state. States and governments are pressed to develop policies that stretch from cultural recognition and territorial autonomy to special rights and public goods provision for the relevant community. Mobilization centered on identity politics is often peaceful but there are also instances where the politicization of grievances may lead to violence such as riots, terrorism or civil wars. This chapter explains the repertoire of actions available to ethno-nationalist movements and concentrates on the importance of structural conditions in making salient ethnic and national cleavages. The focus is on movements operating in democratic settings and the impact of macro–social changes on indigenous movements in Latin America.
Stephen Castles and Carl‐Ulrik Schierup
This article addresses two categories of people: immigrants and ethnic minorities. It briefly outlines three current research perspectives on ethnic diversity and the welfare state, each of them of importance for overcoming the general neglect of this issue, essential for both the present and future of North Atlantic societies. The article also describes what is referred to as tendencies towards Americanization of European welfare states. It then argues that there is a need for transcending the scope of current approaches through linking issues of migration and diversity to a dynamic political-economic research perspective on neoliberal transformation. Some examples of racialization of welfare are presented. The racialization of social citizenship has been an important part of the ideological apparatus developed to deal with the dual crisis. The current economic efforts could contribute to nationalism, protectionism, and even stronger trends to racialization and the exclusion of minorities.
Gary P. Freeman
This article analyses the political relevance of mass immigration focusing on migration into Western democracies in the last forty years. It discusses the issues of immigration control and immigration incorporation and argues that liberal states are torn in their approach to immigration and this indecision is reflected in policies that are an incoherent mix of aggressive restriction and active and passive acceptance. It suggests that ostentatious efforts by governments to control unwanted migration, however ineffective they may be, are necessary to raise public willingness to go along with the renewed recruitment of skilled migrants and reformulated programs to integrate existing immigrant communities.
This article looks into the political implications of population change and urbanization for state consolidation of the historically unprecedented situation that most populations everywhere will be located primarily in urban areas. It discusses the opportunities and challenges that urbanization poses for two critical aspects of state consolidation: building the coercive apparatus of the state itself and the popular control of public coercion through the establishment of democracy. The movement of people to the cities in developing countries presents opportunities as well as dangers to states. But no matter how disorganized and chaotic major cities in the poorer parts of the developing world appear to outsiders, these areas are actually amongst the easiest for a state to control and could be the vanguards for democratization.
David I. Kertzer and Dominique Arel
This article examines the conception of population composition as an object of political struggle. It acknowledges that census holds a powerful sway over political analysts and explains that census becomes a political battleground not due to vitiation of what should be a technical exercise, but rather because of its fundamental role in representing groups. It identifies the agents of category construction in census and describes the three models of linking state-recognized identity categories to political power and evaluates their application to Soviet ethnogenesis. It suggests that the decision to categorize the composition of a population along cultural markers, and the formulation of these categories are political choices and that the affirmation of an identity by an individual on the census, within the repertoire offered, is a matter of choice.
Racialization involves the production and justification of hierarchies of difference through appeals to notions of superiority and inferiority. This chapter considers multiple views of racialization, ranging from accounts of racial formation, intersectionality, matrices of domination, and assemblages to analyses of colonialism, enslavement, and capitalist accumulation by dispossession. In contrast to discredited biological notions of race, it draws attention to processes of racialization that are orchestrated through state policies and practices that subordinate, marginalize, and exclude particular groups while securing the dominance of other groups. The final section of the chapter examines violent racialization in the form of abusive and lethal policing practices, which are best understood as state terror that establishes the parameters of permissible hate.
Jennifer L. Hochschild and Francis X. Shen
Persistent white–black disparities in education outcomes, combined with the growing presence of Asian American and especially Latino children, will make race and ethnicity a core element of education policy in the United States in the twenty-first century. This chapter explores, without resolving, a series of questions at the intersection of race, ethnicity, and American education policy. We review research evidence on persistent racial achievement gaps, race and school choice, the impact of No Child Left Behind, urban school governance, segregation, and the role of the courts in desegregation and school finance. We find that most questions about the best policies on these topics have no clear answers for several reasons explored in the chapter. Furthermore, future research must be reconceptualized since standard assumptions about group boundaries and group interests warrant reexamination. The study of education needs better data, improved methodologies, closer attention to class dynamics, and less partisan scholarship.
This article examines the relevance of religion, ethnicity, and race in political analysis. It discusses the relation between political power and constructivism and evaluates the influence of the politics of race, ethnicity, and religion on democratic consolidation. It explains that political scientists and other observers of contemporary politics treat race, ethnicity, and religion as problems and they believe such social categories threaten the survival of democratic political institutions and the fabric of national society. It also proposes solutions to the problems caused by social heterogeneity in order to ensure the survival of democracy.