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After Antiquity  

Clifford Ando

Published in print:
Jun 2010
Published Online:
Sep 2012
The analysis and periodisation of the events and changes that take us from the Roman Empire at its height to whatever came after it have long occupied a distinguished place in European ... More

Agriculture and Farming  

Zeev Safrai

Published in print:
Aug 2010
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article presents a survey of research in farming and agriculture. It discusses the extent the economy was open that involved export and import. It then demonstrates how the local ... More

Anatolian States  

Trevor Bryce

Published in print:
Feb 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter explores the history of state formation in the Anatolian States, focusing on the Hittite state, which it explains arose in north-central Anatolia early in the Late Bronze Age ... More

Ancient Near Eastern City-States  

Steven J. Garfinkle

Published in print:
Feb 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter examines the history of the formation of city-states in the Fertile Crescent. It provides a working definition of city-state in both spatial and social terms, and describes ... More

Anthropology  

Maurizio Bettini

Published in print:
Jun 2010
Published Online:
Sep 2012
Anthropology and the humanities both deal with man, but they deal with utterly different kinds of man. To put them together was a difficult task, therefore: it was not a simple question of ... More

Arts and Crafts, Manufacture and Production  

Uzi Leibner

Published in print:
Aug 2010
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article deals with Jewish arts and crafts and manufacture and production. It first introduces the sources used to shed more light on the crafts, manufacture, and production industries ... More

Bronze Age Greece  

John Bennet

Published in print:
Feb 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter examines the history of state formation in ancient Greece during the Bronze Age, providing an overview of the nature of the Minoan states and the extent of control exercised ... More

The Byzantine Successor State  

John F. Haldon

Published in print:
Feb 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter examines the history of state formation in the Byzantine Empire, or the eastern Roman Empire, during the fourth century to the fifteenth century CE. It explains that the ... More

Carthage  

Walter Ameling

Published in print:
Feb 2013
Published Online:
Jan 2013
This chapter examines the history of state formation in Carthage, explaining that the history of the Carthaginian state is one with a changing constitution, with new institutions emerging ... More

Classical and Near Eastern Slavery in the First Millennium bce  

David M. Lewis

Twentieth-century scholarship, guided in particular by the views of M. I. Finley, saw Greece and Rome as the only true ‘slave societies’ of antiquity: slavery in the Near East was of minor ... More

Clothing  

Dafna Shlezinger‐Katsman

Published in print:
Aug 2010
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article discusses the garments that were worn by the Jews in Israel during the Graeco-Roman period. The discussion uses available material and literary sources, and tries to determine ... More

Collegia and their Impact on the Constitutional Structure of the Roman State  

Jonathan S. Perry

Published in print:
Oct 2016
Published Online:
Nov 2016
Focusing on a few key passages, derived principally from law codes and literary sources, this chapter sketches out the legal situation of collegia vis-à-vis “the state”. However, this ... More

Contracts, Commerce and Roman Society  

Roberto Fiori

Published in print:
Oct 2016
Published Online:
Nov 2016
The Roman law of contract has developed itself around the idea of obligation. At the beginning of its history, transactions were possibly differentiated only at an economical level, while ... More

Courts and the Judicial System  

Jill Harries

Published in print:
Aug 2010
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article discusses the courts and the judicial system of Roman Palestine. It takes note of the judicial diversity that existed during the time, and considers the Roman provincial ... More

Culture-Based Approaches  

Matthew Roller

Published in print:
Jun 2010
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article examines some of the ways the concept of culture has been deployed in Roman Studies, and in classical scholarship more generally. In so doing, it hopes to show what kinds of ... More

Death, Burial, and Afterlife  

Steven Fine

Published in print:
Aug 2010
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article discusses the physical contexts of Jewish death during the Roman period and tries to determine if people believed in the afterlife. It describes the monumental tombs of the ... More

The Different Life Stages: From Childhood to Old Age  

Jonathan Schofer

Published in print:
Aug 2010
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article examines approaches to the topic of life cycles among Jews in Roman Palestine. It first identifies the methodological issues associated with comparing the Jewish and (Graeco-) ... More

The Early Imperial Monarchy  

Carlos F. Nqreña

Published in print:
Jun 2010
Published Online:
Sep 2012
The most significant and distinctive features of the period covered in this article, roughly the first two centuries CE, were the political stability of the Roman state and the territorial ... More

Early Rome  

Nicola Terrenato

Published in print:
Jun 2010
Published Online:
Sep 2012
While century-old materialist and idealist frameworks still largely predominate in the archaeology and the history of later Roman periods, a freer theoretical rein can apparently be ... More

Economy and Quality of Life  

Walter Scheidel

Published in print:
Jun 2010
Published Online:
Sep 2012
Among Roman historians, the resultant picture of a highly localised, fragmented, and largely agrarian economy that sustained a thin veneer of coerced transfers and trade in luxuries and a ... More

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