This chapter examines the relationship between Iron Age gender and society, viewed from the mortuary evidence. It distinguishes an early Iron Age masculine west, an increasingly female-authored salt trade, and a generation of mobility (620–580 BC) ushering in new social forms. Discussing recent work on gender identities, the relationship between daggers and swords is examined. Linked, gendered lineages are identified—increasingly male-authored, and opulent, with Greek connections, in south-west Germany; alongside female authority in eastern France. Beginning in Germany, male-authored violence is attested (550–450 BC, aligning with Livy), followed by radical social change (400–350 BC), as disproportionate deposition signifies the ritual end to Hallstatt traditions; alongside development of martial, ‘egalitarian’ La Tène communities. Sex was a common, divergent, structuring principle in regional Hallstatt C–D societies. Further, a reading for gender in the texts reveals differences between western European Iron Age and late classical Mediterranean gender norms.