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Abortion and Reproductive Rights  

Jane Maslow Cohen

Published in print:
Jun 2005
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article discusses critical debate about individual control over the beginnings of life that has sprawled across the fields of academic law, philosophy, politics, religion, the life ... More

Accessing Hospitals and Health Professionals  

Eleanor D. Kinney and Priscilla Keith

Published in print:
Jan 2017
Published Online:
Feb 2016
This chapter examines the issue of access to healthcare, with particular emphasis on the five dimensions of the model proposed by Roy Penchansky and J. William Thomas: availability, ... More

Anthropology and the Grounds of Human Rights  

Mark Goodale

Published in print:
Oct 2013
Published Online:
Dec 2013
This article examines the relation between the history of anthropology and human rights. It explains that anthropology first became connected with human rights in 1947 when the United Nations ... More

The Anti-Slavery Movement and the Rise of International Non-Governmental Organizations  

Jenny S. Martinez

Published in print:
Oct 2013
Published Online:
Dec 2013
This article examines the history of the emergence in the nineteenth century of non-governmental organizations, focusing on those organized around slavery and women’s rights and suffrage. It explains ... More

Armed Conflict and Forced Migration: A Systematic Approach To International Humanitarian Law, Refugee Law, And International Human Rights Law  

Vincent Chetail

Published in print:
Mar 2014
Published Online:
Jun 2014
This chapter examines the application of three branches of international law to forced migration and refugee protection in an armed conflict. It provides a comparative assessment of these ... More

Assisted Reproductive Technologies and Abortion  

Judith Daar

Published in print:
Jan 2017
Published Online:
Jul 2015
This article focuses on debates, both historic and contemporary, surrounding assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and abortion. After providing a historical background on ART and ... More

Biological Foundations of Human Rights  

Chris A. Robinson

Published in print:
Oct 2013
Published Online:
Dec 2013
This article examines biological theories and evidence about the evolution of human traits that are relevant for the development of human rights law. It highlights the human potential for violent and ... More

The Biomedical Research Enterprise  

Mark Barnes and David Peloquin

Published in print:
Jan 2017
Published Online:
Jul 2015
This article examines federal and state laws on biomedical research in the United States. It also considers the tension among various regulatory regimes and highlights conflicting ... More

Citizenship  

Ayelet Shachar

Published in print:
May 2012
Published Online:
Nov 2012
This article highlights the trials and tribulations of citizenship in a world of increasing mobility and diversity. The discussion is divided into three parts. Section I provides a concise ... More

Citizenship and Human Rights  

David Owen

Published in print:
Aug 2017
Published Online:
Sep 2017
The relationship of citizenship and human rights has become a central issue for contemporary politics. This chapter begins with a brief overview of theories of human rights, before ... More

Citizenship in Immigration States  

Christian Joppke

Published in print:
Aug 2017
Published Online:
Sep 2017
This chapter traces the development of citizenship in immigrant-receiving states, comparing the Gulf States in the Middle East with the Western states of Europe and North America. In ... More

Comparative Law and Human Rights  

Samantha Besson

Published in print:
Mar 2019
Published Online:
May 2019
This chapter discusses the boundaries, the authority, and the methods of comparative human rights law (CHRL). It first explains what comparing human rights means and how it developed ... More

Compliance  

Gisella Gori

Published in print:
Oct 2013
Published Online:
Dec 2013
This article examines the compliance of States with international human rights law. It explains the distinction between judicial and non-judicial compliance mechanisms, focusing on the United Nations ... More

Constitutional Developments from Jackson through Reconstruction  

Michael Les Benedict

Published in print:
Oct 2015
Published Online:
Nov 2015
This chapter examines constitutional developments during the period from the inauguration of President Andrew Jackson through Reconstruction. It begins with an overview of the tension ... More

Core Rights and Obligations  

Martin Scheinin

Published in print:
Oct 2013
Published Online:
Dec 2013
This article examines the three main approaches in the identification of the core rights and obligations in international human rights law. These include the consideration of some human rights as ... More

Creating and Applying Human Rights Indicators  

Francisco López-Bermúdez

Published in print:
Oct 2013
Published Online:
Dec 2013
This article focuses on the history of the creation and application of human rights indicators within the United Nations. It describes the economic, statistical, social, and development regimes ... More

Current Challenges to International Humanitarian Law  

Antonio Cassese

Published in print:
Mar 2014
Published Online:
Jun 2014
This chapter begins with a discussion of the role of Swiss banker Henry Dunant in the genesis of international humanitarian law (IHL). It then assesses the present deficiencies of IHL. ... More

Customary Humanitarian Law Today: From the Academy to the Courtroom  

Theodor Meron

Published in print:
Mar 2014
Published Online:
Jun 2014
This chapter discusses the revival of customary humanitarian law. It begins by considering the origins of the revival, followed by discussions of the application of customary international ... More

Democracy and the Rule of Law  

Christian Tomuschat

Published in print:
Oct 2013
Published Online:
Dec 2013
This article examines the role of the rule of law and democracy in international human rights law. It discusses the legal nature and the formal recognition of the rule of law and democracy. It ... More

Democratic Rights  

Yasmin Dawood

Published in print:
Oct 2017
Published Online:
Nov 2017
This chapter examines the scope and protection of democratic rights in Canada. After outlining the source of democratic rights, it focuses on the right to vote by considering judicial ... More

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