This chapter examines Buddhism in Malaysia, from its early history through the contemporary period. It investigates the factors that contributed to the migration and continued presence of Chinese, Thai, Burmese, and Sri Lankan Buddhists to peninsular Malaysia, as well as the causes that led to the founding of their own familiar places of worship. Turning more specifically to the postcolonial period, this chapter explores the intersection of politics and religion. Focusing on the minority status of Malaysian Buddhists vis-à-vis their majority Malay-Muslim fellow citizens, the chapter considers not only how the commodification of religion and culture has functioned as a centripetal force drawing together disparate groups of Buddhists in Malaysia, but also how the felt need among Buddhists to work together and speak in a unified voice has shaped ideas about Buddhist orthodoxy and orthopraxy.
Tibet became the object of Western imagination in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries when Britain and Russia coveted the territory. During this time, images emerged in European writings either romanticizing or demonizing the region. Contemporary Tibetan studies scholars have examined how many of these depictions continue to shape master narratives about Tibet. This article presents an alternative to these master narratives through a historical and ethnographic study of the Tibetan Muslims residing in Kashmir, a diaspora community that migrated from Lhasa to India after the Chinese government took full control of central Tibet in 1959. A study of this community’s history and living memories presents new, diverse, and unique lenses through which to view Tibetan history, religion, and identity.