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Ancient Scepticism  

Richard Bett

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
This chapter, which analyses the ethical theories of Greek sceptic Sextus Empiricus, begins by considering other sceptical figures who preceded Sextus, both for their intrinsic interest ... More

Aristotle on Becoming Good: Habituation, Reflection, and Perception  

Richard Kraut

Print publication date:
Aug 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
The Greek noun for which “virtue” and “excellence” are often used as translations—aretê (plural: aretai)—is cognate to the name of the god of war, Ares (called “Mars” in Latin) and, ... More

Aristotle on Practical Reason  

Christopher C. W. Taylor

Online publication date:
Aug 2016
For Aristotle,phronēsis, the excellence of the practical intellect, is two-fold, consisting of a true conception of the end to be achieved by action and correct deliberation about the ... More

Aristotle's Ethics  

Paula Gottlieb

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
This chapter examines the main issues in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. The discussions cover his views on happiness, virtues of character, virtues of thought, moral responsibility, moral ... More

British Idealist Ethics  

W.J. Mander

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
A new moral philosophy emerged on the British philosophical scene in the late 1870s, one referred to as the idealist ethic of social self-realization, which rapidly became the dominant ... More

Conceptions of Happiness in the Nicomachean Ethics  

Terence H. Irwin

Print publication date:
Aug 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Aristotle begins the Nicomachean Ethics by asking what the final good for human beings is. He identifies this final good with happiness, and in the rest of Book I, asks what happiness is. ... More

Cynicism and Stoicism  

Christopher Gill

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
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Apr 2013
This chapter discusses the ethical theories of Cynics and Stoics. Cynicism traces its origins to Diogenes of Sinope (c. 412/403–c. 324/321 BC), the most colourful and outrageous of all ... More

Epicurus: Freedom, Death, and Hedonism  

Phillip Mitsis

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
This chapter begins with an Epicurean account of freedom of choice, which illustrates some of the larger contours of Plato's ethical aims in the context of his materialism. It also serves ... More

Homeric Ethics  

Roger Crisp

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
This chapter provides interpretations of Homeric poems. Homer reflects a view of the nature of human beings and their place in the world, and their reasons for living and acting in that ... More

Plato's Ethics  

Julia Annas

Print publication date:
Aug 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Ethics, is referred to as a concern to act rightly and to live a good life, is pervasive in Plato's work, and so we find Plato's ethical thinking throughout the dialogues. The article ... More

Plato's Ethics  

Nicholas White

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
This chapter, which analyses Plato's thinking about ethics and his engagement with it, first reviews his earlier works and asks why neither of them address ethical questions. It then turns ... More

Platonic Ethics in Later Antiquity  

Lloyd P. Gerson

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
This chapter examines the ethical theories of Platonists in later Antiquity. The focus is on Plotinus, given that later Platonists follow him in his exposition of the Platonic position. ... More

Socratic Ethics and Moral Psychology  

Daniel Devereux

Print publication date:
Aug 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Plato's dialogues form the basis of Socratic Ethics and Moral Psychology. Among Plato's thirty-five dialogues there is a group of eleven or twelve that share certain features setting them ... More

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