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‘A Promise Made is a Debt Unpaid’: Nietzsche on the Morality of Commitment and the Commitments of Morality  

Mark Migotti

Published in print:
Sep 2013
Published Online:
Dec 2013
This article discusses what we can learn about promising and about Nietzsche’s critique of morality from his discussion of sovereign promising in the opening sections of the second essay ... More

Abortion  

John Harris and Søren Holm

Published in print:
Sep 2005
Published Online:
Sep 2009
Abortion is one of those classic problems that has been discussed in all of the major ‘fertile periods’ of practical philosophy, from the flourishing of Greek thought, through the medieval ... More

Abortion and Death  

Don Marquis

Published in print:
Dec 2012
Published Online:
Dec 2012
This chapter, which examines views about abortion and death, discusses claims about abortion and explains some ways for considering these claims to be true. It analyzes whether abortion ... More

Abortion and Public Health Ethics  

Mahmoud F. Fathalla

Published in print:
Sep 2019
Published Online:
Feb 2019
There is an ethical imperative to take public health action to eliminate the global problem of unsafe abortion. The moral obligation is dictated by the magnitude of the problem, the health ... More

Abortion Revisited  

Don Marquis

Published in print:
Feb 2009
Published Online:
Sep 2009
The three major classical accounts of the morality of abortion are all subject to at least one major problem. Can we do better? This article aims to discuss three accounts that purport to ... More

Access to Basic Reproductive Rights: Global Challenges  

Sheelagh McGuinness and Heather Widdows

Published in print:
Feb 2017
Published Online:
Apr 2016
If women are to have true equality with men, they must be able to control the number of children they have and the time of childbirth. Access to family planning services, particularly safe ... More

Access to Pregnancy-Related Services: Public Health Ethics Issues  

Anne Drapkin Lyerly, Elana Jaffe, and Margaret Olivia Little

Published in print:
Sep 2019
Published Online:
Feb 2019
Advancing fair access to evidence-based pregnancy-related services is a critical public health priority. It is widely recognized that there are inequalities in lifesaving interventions. ... More

Acquiring Aristotelian Virtue  

Nafsika Athanassoulis

Published in print:
Feb 2018
Published Online:
Dec 2017
This chapter examines the role of the virtuous agent in the acquisition of virtue. It rejects the view of the virtuous agent as a direct model for imitation and instead focuses on recent ... More

Action  

Alfred R. Mele

Published in print:
Nov 2007
Published Online:
Sep 2009
What are actions? And how are actions to be explained? These two central questions of the philosophy of action call, respectively, for a theory of the nature of action and a theory of the ... More

Adam Smith  

James R. Otteson

Published in print:
Jan 2013
Published Online:
Apr 2013
The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759) is Adam Smith's major contribution to ethical thought. Although it underwent six revisions during his lifetime, its primary arguments did not change, ... More

Affirmative Action  

Walter Feinberg

Published in print:
Sep 2005
Published Online:
Sep 2009
Affirmative action is a term used in the USA to depict a set of laws, policies, guidelines, and government-mandated and government-sanctioned administrative practices, including those of ... More

Aging Populations and Public Health Ethics  

Lois Shepherd

Published in print:
Sep 2019
Published Online:
Jan 2019
This chapter examines three primary public health goals relating to elderly populations: promoting healthy aging (including aging in place), reducing health inequities, and extending life ... More

The Aging Society and the Expansion of Senility: Biotechnological and Treatment Goals  

Stephen G. Post

Published in print:
Feb 2009
Published Online:
Sep 2009
Of the many topics worthy of discussion regarding older adults and bioethics, two seem to provide an especially pointed opportunity for reflection on our aging society. First, is aging ... More

Agriculture and Agricultural Biotechnology  

David Castle

Published in print:
Jul 2008
Published Online:
Sep 2009
This article explores a number of issues in agriculture and agricultural biotechnology putting a special emphasis within the philosophy of biology which is a fruitful area of study. The ... More

Alcohol and Other Drugs: Public Health Ethics Issues  

Brendan Saloner

Published in print:
Sep 2019
Published Online:
Feb 2019
This chapter examines ethical principles that guide public health intervention to reduce the harms of alcohol and other drugs, including justice-based concerns regarding intervention. ... More

Alternatives to Neo-Aristotelian Virtue Ethics  

Glen Pettigrove

Published in print:
Feb 2018
Published Online:
Dec 2017
Most contemporary variants of virtue ethics have a neo-Aristotelian timbre. However, standing alongside the neo-Aristotelians are a number of others playing similar tunes on different ... More

American Moral Philosophy  

Brad Hooker

Published in print:
Sep 2008
Published Online:
Sep 2009
The philosophy of language and philosophy of science were dominant from the middle 1930s for the next twenty-five years. During this period, many leading philosophers felt reluctant to ... More

Ancient Scepticism  

Richard Bett

Published in print:
Jan 2013
Published Online:
Apr 2013
This chapter, which analyses the ethical theories of Greek sceptic Sextus Empiricus, begins by considering other sceptical figures who preceded Sextus, both for their intrinsic interest ... More

Animal Experimentation  

Alastair Norcross

Published in print:
Feb 2009
Published Online:
Sep 2009
This article takes the central issue concerning the ethics of animal experimentation to be the moral status of animals. Since most animal experimentation involves treating experimental ... More

Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research  

Hugh LaFollette

Published in print:
Oct 2011
Published Online:
May 2012
This article discusses the conditions under which it is permissible and advisable to use animals in biomedical experimentation. The “Common View” is that there are moral limits on what we ... More

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