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Agency and Interventionist Theories  

James F. Woodward

Print publication date:
Nov 2009
Online publication date:
Jan 2010
Agency and interventionist theories of causation take as their point of departure a common-sense idea about the connection between causation and manipulation: causal relationships are ... More

Alteration and Persistence: Form and Matter in the Physics and De Generatione et Corruptione  

S. Marc Cohen

Print publication date:
Aug 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Aristotle's Physics is a study of nature (phusis) and of natural objects (ta phusei). According to him, these objects—either all of them or at least some of them—are in motion. That is, ... More

Anti‐Reductionism  

John W. Carroll

Print publication date:
Nov 2009
Online publication date:
Jan 2010
Anti-reductionism is the view that causation cannot be analysed non-nomically and, further, that causation still resists analysis even when the non-causal, nomic concepts are made ... More

The Asymmetry of Influence  

Douglas Kutach

Print publication date:
Apr 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2011
This chapter considers the nature of the causal asymmetry, or even more generally, the asymmetry of influence. Putting aside explanations which would appeal to an asymmetry in time as ... More

Atomism's Eleatic Roots  

David Sedley

Print publication date:
Oct 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Presocratic atomism was one of the most influential of the early theories: both Plato and Aristotle thought of it as a major competing theory, and it was an important source for ... More

Beyond Theoretical Reduction and Layer‐Cake Antireduction: How DNA Retooled Genetics and Transformed Biological Practice  

C. Kenneth Waters

Print publication date:
Jul 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Watson and Crick's discovery of the structure of DNA transformed biology by providing a basis for explaining a wide variety of phenomena. Philosophical discussion concerning this discovery ... More

Bringing Context and Variability Back into Causal Analysis  

Stephen L. Morgan and Christopher Winship

Print publication date:
Aug 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article describes the methods for modeling causal effects in observational social science. It considers the capacity of new graphical methods to represent and then motivates models ... More

The Causal Closure of Physics and Free Will  

Robert C. Bishop and Harald Atmanspacher

Print publication date:
Jul 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article focuses on the thesis known as the causal closure (or causal completeness) of physics (CoP)—that all physical events can be fully explained by physical causes governed by the ... More

Causal Modelling  

Christopher Hitchcock

Print publication date:
Nov 2009
Online publication date:
Jan 2010
‘Causal modelling’ is a general term that applies to a wide variety of formal methods for representing, and facilitating inferences about, causal relationships. The end of the twentieth ... More

Causal Pluralism  

Peter Godfrey‐Smith

Print publication date:
Nov 2009
Online publication date:
Jan 2010
Causal pluralism is the view that causation is not a single kind of relation or connection between things in the world. Instead, the apparently simple and univocal term ‘cause’ is seen as ... More

Causal Powers and Capacities  

Stephen Mumford

Print publication date:
Nov 2009
Online publication date:
Jan 2010
A dispositional ontology, admitting a category of power or capacity, is thought by some to offer a vital insight into the nature of causation. Proponents believe that other ontologies lack ... More

Causal Process Theories  

Phil Dowe

Print publication date:
Nov 2009
Online publication date:
Jan 2010
If the core idea of process theories of causation is that causation can be understood in terms of causal processes and interactions, then the approach should be attributed primarily to ... More

Causal Relata  

Douglas Ehring

Print publication date:
Nov 2009
Online publication date:
Jan 2010
This article argues that the intrinsicness of the causal relation undermines the main case for facts as the causal relata, which is based on causation by and of absences. Furthermore, it ... More

Causality, Invariance, and Policy  

Nancy Cartwright

Print publication date:
Mar 2009
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article explains the puzzling methodology of an important econometric study of health and status. It notes the widespread use of invariance in both economic and philosophical studies ... More

Causation  

Ned Hall

Print publication date:
Nov 2007
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
There has been in the last decade or so an upsurge of interest in causation outside of philosophy. One important strand of research focuses on how statistical data can be used to draw ... More

Causation  

Michael Rota

Print publication date:
Jan 2012
Online publication date:
May 2012
Aquinas used the term ‘agent’ referring to a created substance or to God. Aquinas's concept of substance explains that substances are set apart from accidents by the fact that substances ... More

Causation and Explanation  

Peter Lipton

Print publication date:
Nov 2009
Online publication date:
Jan 2010
In its simplest form, a causal model of explanation maintains that to explain some phenomenon is to give some information about its causes. This prompts four questions that will structure ... More

Causation and Observation  

Helen Beebee

Print publication date:
Nov 2009
Online publication date:
Jan 2010
This article briefly discusses Hume's original argument concerning the absence of a sensory impression of causation. Hume's argument is important not just because of its historical ... More

Causation and Reduction  

Paul Humphreys

Print publication date:
Nov 2009
Online publication date:
Jan 2010
When considering the relations between causation and reduction one must distinguish between, on the one hand, issues about how causation operates within and between systems that stand in ... More

Causation and Statistical Inference  

Clark Glymour

Print publication date:
Nov 2009
Online publication date:
Jan 2010
In the applied statistical literature, causal relations are often described equivocally or euphemistically as ‘risk factors’, or as part of ‘dimension reduction’. The statistical ... More

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