You are looking at  1-20 of 61 articles  for:

  • Metaphysics x
  • History of Western Philosophy (Post-Classical) x
Clear All

View:

The Actual World  

Donald Rutherford

Print publication date:
Dec 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2015
This chapter discusses Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz’s theory of the actual world as the best of all possible worlds. The chapter opens with Leibniz’s response to the two most basic questions ... More

Beholding Nietzsche: , Fate, and Freedom  

Christa Davis Acampora

Print publication date:
Sep 2013
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
Ecce Homo offers Nietzsche’s own interpretation of himself, his thoughts, and his works. This article analyzes how the text bears on his ideas about agency, fate, and freedom. ... More

Being  

John F. Wippel

Print publication date:
Jan 2012
Online publication date:
May 2012
Aquinas mentioned that the word ‘being’ (ens) signifies ‘that which is’ or ‘that which exists’. Aquinas recognized with Parmenides that the act of being cannot be divided by something ... More

Being  

Gyula Klima

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article argues that the most difficult conceptual hurdle in the way of a contemporary analytical philosopher trying to approach medieval philosophy is the notion of being or ... More

Being, Becoming, and Time in Nietzsche  

Robin Small

Print publication date:
Sep 2013
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This article examines Nietzsche’s thoughts about becoming and being, and how these are at odds with both knowledge and life. It discusses how Nietzsche addresses this problem, beginning ... More

The Building Blocks of Spinoza’s Metaphysics: Substance, Attributes, and Modes  

Yitzhak Melamed

Print publication date:
Oct 2017
Online publication date:
Sep 2013
This chapter provides an outline of the main philosophical and interpretative problems involved in Spinoza’s key concepts: Substance, Attribute, and Modes. Spinoza’s God has infinitely ... More

But Why Was Spinoza a Necessitarian?  

Charles Huenemann

Print publication date:
Oct 2017
Online publication date:
Sep 2013
Spinoza was of course a necessitarian. But what motivated him to embrace such a troublesome view? This article first recounts the structure of Spinoza’s necessitarianism, recounting the ... More

Causation  

Michael Rota

Print publication date:
Jan 2012
Online publication date:
May 2012
Aquinas used the term ‘agent’ referring to a created substance or to God. Aquinas's concept of substance explains that substances are set apart from accidents by the fact that substances ... More

The Complete Concept of an Individual Substance  

Stefano Di Bella

Print publication date:
Dec 2018
Online publication date:
Mar 2014
This chapter examines the complete-concept theory central to Leibniz's Discourse on Metaphysics of 1686. It argues that this doctrine lies at the intersection of three great layers of ... More

Cosmology  

Domenico Bertoloni Meli

Print publication date:
Dec 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2015
This chapter focuses on Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz’s interest in cosmology in relation to some of his other concerns, including God’s role in the universe, the reunion of the churches, ... More

Dewey’s Naturalistic Metaphysics  

Thomas Alexander

Dewey gradually abandoned the absolute idealism of his early period for what became his well-known philosophy of experience, his “cultural naturalism,” as he came to call it. During this ... More

Dewey, Whitehead, and Process Metaphysics  

William T. Myers

This chapter is divided into three main sections: Dewey’s metaphysics, Whitehead’s metaphysics, and the connections between them. The Dewey section begins with a discussion of current ... More

Dialectic, Value Objectivity, and the Unity of Reason  

Fred Rush

Print publication date:
Nov 2007
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article begins by setting out Kant's views on the dialectic of reason and the related concept of reflective judgment. It then shows how two main strands of German philosophy in the ... More

The Early Moderns  

Kenneth Clatterbaugh

Print publication date:
Nov 2009
Online publication date:
Jan 2010
The early moderns confronted an abundance of causes and types of causal explanations. From Aristotle through the Scholastics they had inherited the doctrine of the four causes, that is, ... More

Essences and Kinds  

Peter R. Anstey

Print publication date:
Jan 2011
Online publication date:
May 2011
This article examines the views of René Descartes, Robert Boyle, and John Locke on essence and kinds and outlines the polemical stances that motivate and direct each of their views. It ... More

Essences, Ideas, and Truths in God’s Mind and in the Human Mind  

Massimo Mugnai

Print publication date:
Dec 2018
Online publication date:
Jul 2015
This chapter discusses Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz’s philosophical reflections on essences, ideas, and truths in God’s mind and in the human mind. After examining Leibniz’s claim that the ... More

Eternal Recurrence  

Paul S. Loeb

Print publication date:
Sep 2013
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This article shows that Nietzsche’s published presentations endorse the cosmological truth of eternal recurrence and that they indicate how belief in this truth can be supported with ... More

Eternity  

Chantal Jaquet

Print publication date:
Oct 2017
Online publication date:
Sep 2013
Eternity is a property that substance and modes have in common. Spinoza posits in E5p23 that “the human mind cannot be absolutely destroyed with the body, but something of it remains which ... More

The Free Will Problem  

Paul Russell

Print publication date:
Jan 2011
Online publication date:
May 2011
This article examines the free will problem as it arises within Thomas Hobbes' naturalistic science of morals in early modern Europe. It explains that during this period, the problem of ... More

Freedom and Contingency  

Jeffrey K. McDonough

Print publication date:
Dec 2018
Online publication date:
Oct 2017
This chapter attempts to clarify Leibniz’s theories of freedom and contingency by viewing them against the backdrop of his efforts to reengineer important philosophical concepts. In ... More

View: