Assessing the Language Skills of African American English Child Speakers: Current Approaches and Perspectives
Toya A. Wyatt
The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of current as well as past special education regulations, litigation, professional association guidelines, clinical models, and best practice approaches for the clinical speech and language skills of African American English (AAE) for zero-three, preschool and school-age child speakers. It also provides a summary of current AAE child language research within the field of Communication Sciences and Disorders that has implications for: a) the selection of appropriate formal and informal speech-language assessment procedures, b) accurate differential diagnosis of disorder vs. normal dialect difference in children with suspected language impairment and c) the identification of appropriate therapy goals when relevant. Implications for the development of future theoretical frameworks and standardized assessments that help to minimize the historical misdiagnosis and disproportionate over-identification of African American students for speech-language and other special education placements is also addressed.
The present article poses some fundamental questions related to bilingualism and to the acquisition of two phonological components, by very young children. It discusses different types of bilingualism and their outcomes. After a brief consideration of alleged pros and cons of bilingualism brought up in the past decades, two perspectives of bilingualism are sketched—psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic—and certain aspects of bilingual child phonology are presented from each of these points of view. The essential issue is whether different outcomes of bilingual child phonology are predictable, and to find the crucial criteria to support the predictions. Finally, the discussion addresses some basic questions about bilingual acquisition, and ends with a summary of various types of cross-linguistic interaction.
Hayley Blunden and Francesca Gino
This chapter integrates research on advice interactions, motivations for advising, and the psychological consequences of serving in an advisor role to develop a more comprehensive perspective on the psychology of advising. By connecting this work, which spans various methodologies and theoretical foundations, it advances current thinking on advice giving in two primary ways. First, in examining the diversity of motivations for advice giving, it extends the set of advice-exchange outcomes to be considered beyond those previously emphasized. Second, it highlights previously unexplored aspects of the advisor role that are likely to impact the advice-giving experience. The chapter concludes by providing recommendations for advisors and identifying areas ripe for future research to illuminate the advisor side of the advice-exchange process.