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Asymmetry in Case Marking: Nominal VS. Pronominal Systems  

Oliver A. Iggesen

Published in print:
Nov 2008
Published Online:
Sep 2012
Many languages with nominal case inflection apply the same distinctions of case forms evenly across their entire nominal lexicon. Hence, all conceivable subclasses of nominals must ... More

Case and the Typology of Transitivity  

Seppo Kittilä

Published in print:
Nov 2008
Published Online:
Sep 2012
Canonical transitive events involve a volitional and controlling agent and a thoroughly affected patient. Any deviation from this prototype may result in a change in the coding of the ... More

Case-Marking Typology  

Beatrice Primus

Published in print:
Nov 2010
Published Online:
Sep 2012
Case is a category of marking dependent noun phrases for the type of relationship they bear to their heads. The three phenomena that are clearly determined by case functions in many ... More

Distributional Typology: Statistical Inquiries into the Dynamics of Linguistic Diversity  

Balthasar Bickel

Published in print:
Feb 2015
Published Online:
Jul 2015
Over the past two decades, linguistic typology has been moving increasingly away from its original goal of classifying languages into ideal types that would be constrained by categorical ... More

Formal Generative Typology  

Mark C. Baker

Published in print:
Feb 2015
Published Online:
Jul 2015
This chapter lays out an approach that combines a formal-generative perspective on language, including tolerance of abstract analyses, with a typological focus on comparing unrelated ... More

Grammatical Relations Typology  

Balthasar Bickel

Published in print:
Nov 2010
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article outlines the typological variables that define or condition specific grammatical relations (GRs). It specifically discusses the relational roles and the referential properties ... More

Linguistic Typology and Formal Grammar  

Maria Polinsky

Published in print:
Nov 2010
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article discusses the relationship between linguistic typology and formal grammar. It explores several areas where typology and formal grammar diverge, and where they most need to ... More

Morphological Typology  

Dunstan Brown

Published in print:
Nov 2010
Published Online:
Sep 2012
The term ‘morphological typology’ has been traditionally associated with the division of languages into basic ‘holistic’ types that could be used to characterize a complete language. ... More

Person Marking  

Anna Siewierska

Published in print:
Nov 2010
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article explains the category person, and the status of the third person as a member of this category. It reports the different morphophonological realizations of person markers. The ... More

Rare and ‘Exotic’ Cases  

Andrej L. Malchukov

Published in print:
Nov 2008
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article addresses rare phenomena in case marking, focusing on those which are exceptional in terms of distribution or function. First, it deals with cases deviant in distribution, ... More

Reflexives  

Eric Reuland

Published Online:
Dec 2014
This article analyzes the factors determining the use of dedicated reflexives in natural language. It addresses the very diverse ways in which reflexivity is expressed and shows how to ... More

Spatial Cases  

Denis Creissels

Published in print:
Nov 2008
Published Online:
Sep 2012
A spatial case is an inflected form of nouns or noun phrases distinct from the absolute form available for the extra-syntactic function of pure designation, and apt to fulfil one of the ... More

Syntactic Typology  

Lindsay Whaley

Published in print:
Nov 2010
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article provides a sampling of just three areas of syntactic typology. The first deals with work carried out on relative clauses, one of the most thoroughly examined topics in ... More

Transitivity Typology  

Seppo Kittilä

Published in print:
Nov 2010
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article describes some of the most central facets of transitivity in general. It briefly reports some of the definitions linguistic transitivity has been given. These comprise ... More

Typology of Case Systems: Parameters of Variation  

Andrej L. Malchukov and Andrew Spencer

Published in print:
Nov 2008
Published Online:
Sep 2012
The sizes of case systems vary dramatically, from the minimal (two case) systems, to the large inventories exemplified by Daghestanian. An interesting question is whether there are any ... More

Typology of Compounds  

Laurie Bauer

Published in print:
Jul 2011
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This chapter first reviews some of the parameters along which compounds may vary, and then considers the extent to which observing such variation brings us closer to a typology of ... More

Typology of Tense, Aspect, and Modality Systems  

Ferdinand de Haan

Published in print:
Nov 2010
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article is concerned with the notions of tense, aspect, and modality from a typological point of view. It provides an overview of the major areas of ongoing research and also a ... More

Universals and Typology  

Jean-Pierre Desclés and Zlatka Guentchéva

Published in print:
May 2012
Published Online:
Sep 2012
Contemporary typology can be characterized as the study of cross-linguistic variations and the constraints that bear on them. Following the lead set by Greenberg (1963) and treating data ... More

Varieties of Accusative  

Seppo Kittilä and Andrej L. Malchukov

Published in print:
Nov 2008
Published Online:
Sep 2012
The core function of the accusative case is to encode the affected participant in a transitive clause. Finnish is representative of a nominative-accusative language because it shows that ... More

Varieties of Comitative  

Thomas Stolz, Cornelia Stroh, and Aina Urdze

Published in print:
Nov 2008
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article describes the formal varieties and polysemy patterns of comitative case based on a worldwide convenience sample of 320 languages (including regional varieties). The inventory ... More

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