This article discusses three basic paradigmatic models that Arabic lexicographers adopted over time: (I) al-Khaliil’s model in Kitaab al-ʕayn; (II) al-Jawharii’s model in alhaah; and (III) al-Bustaanii’s model in Kitaab muħiiṭ al-muħiiṭ. Though the three approaches are procedurally opposed, all account for the lexical data of Arabic, offer justifiable procedures of how to account for the complexity of the data, and are maximally different from each other. The article presents a biographical sketch of these selected lexicographers, followed by a discussion of the design and composition of their dictionaries and where they fit in the historical flow of Arabic linguistic activity of their time.
Seyed Mostafa Assi
The history of lexicography in Iran dates back to more than 2,000 years ago, to the time of the compilation of bilingual and monolingual lexicons for the Middle Persian language. After a review of the long and rich tradition of Persian lexicography, the chapter gives an account of the state of the art in the modern era by describing recent advances and developments in this field. During the last three or four decades, in line with the advancements in western countries, Iranian lexicography evolved from its traditional state into a modern professional and academic activity trying to improve the form and content of dictionaries by implementing the following factors: the latest achievements in theoretical and applied linguistics related to lexicography; and the computer techniques and information technology and corpus-based approach to lexicography.
Tim Buckwalter and Dilworth B. Parkinson
This article is a critical survey of contemporary Arabic lexicography, covering a period beginning roughly with the first edition of the Hans Wehr dictionary and extending to present-day corpus-based machine-readable dictionaries and online lexical databases. It covers both monolingual and bilingual Arabic lexicography relating to the standard written language, Modern Standard Arabic, and to the dialects; however, only bilingual publications in which Arabic is the source language are discussed. The article reviews the different solutions that both Standard Arabic and dialect dictionaries have found to the issue of lemma representation (i.e., the choice of phonetic script) and the issue of lemma organization (i.e., whether to follow a root-based arrangement or one that is purely phonetic and alphabetical).