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Amber  

Morten Ramstad, Tony Axelsson, and Anders Strinnholm

Published in print:
Mar 2015
Published Online:
Dec 2013
During the transition to the fourth millennium, large quantities of amber start being distributed over the landscapes of northern and north-eastern Europe. By exploring the handling and ... More

Ancient Dna Research on Wetland Archaeological Evidence  

Angela Schlumbaum and Ceiridwen J. Edwards

This chapter begins by defining ancient DNA and providing a brief history of ancient DNA and its potential for archaeology, followed by discussions of the technological aspects of ancient ... More

Ancient Eskimo Cultures of Chukotka  

Mikhail M. Bronshtein, Kirill A. Dneprovsky, and Arkady B. Savinetsky

Published in print:
Oct 2016
Published Online:
Aug 2016
Remnants of one Paleoeskimo and several Neoeskimo cultural traditions have been revealed in the coastal regions of Chukotka since the mid-1940s. The Chukotka Paleoeskimo cultural ... More

Animals and Social Relations  

Arkadiusz Marciniak and Joshua Pollard

Published in print:
Mar 2015
Published Online:
Jul 2014
The onset of the Neolithic brought with it the establishment of new relations between people and animals, principally, through domestication, a shift to acquisition and control of ... More

Anthropomorphic Clay Figurines of the Jomon Period of Japan  

Koji Mizoguchi

Published in print:
Apr 2017
Published Online:
Jun 2017
This chapter charts the trajectory of change of Jomon period clay anthropomorphic figurines in the Japanese archipelago. The earliest specimens embodied the perception of the body and ... More

The Archaeology of Figurines and the Human Body in Prehistory  

Lynn Meskell

Published in print:
Apr 2017
Published Online:
Jun 2017
In recent decades the analysis of figurines has been theorized within the broader context of archaeology and material culture, and they have lately become the subject of discussions ... More

The Archaeology of Prehistoric Oceania  

Ethan E. Cochrane and Terry L. Hunt

Published in print:
May 2018
Published Online:
Dec 2017
The archaeological record of Oceania stretches over one-third of the earth’s surface with the first humans entering Oceania 50,000 years ago and with the last major archipelago settled ... More

The Archaeology of Religion and Ritual in the Prehistoric Japanese Archipelago  

Simon Kaner

Published in print:
Oct 2011
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article reviews the evidence and interpretation of the development of ritual traditions in the prehistoric Japanese archipelago prior to the appearance of Buddhism in mid-sixth ... More

Archaic-Period Foragers and Farmers in Mesoamerica  

Douglas J. Kennett

Published in print:
Sep 2012
Published Online:
Nov 2012
This article reviews archaeological evidence of the Archaic period (~7000–2000 bc ), which is traditionally viewed as a long transitional interval between a poorly defined the era of ... More

The Atlantic Mesolithic–Neolithic Transition  

Nick Thorpe

Published in print:
Mar 2015
Published Online:
Dec 2014
The Atlantic has long held a key position within the broader question of the Mesolithic–Neolithic transition in Europe. Archaeological evidence suggests significant variability between the ... More

Bananas: The Spread of a Tropical Forest Fruit as an Agricultural Staple  

Cristina Castillo and Dorian Q. Fuller

Published Online:
Mar 2016
The banana (Musa) is one of the world’s most important crops and the most valuable fruit in the global market. In the search for varieties that are more pest- and disease-resistant plant ... More

The Bandkeramik Longhouses: A Material, Social, and Mental Metaphor for Small-Scale Sedentary Societies  

Anick Coudart

Published in print:
Mar 2015
Published Online:
Jan 2014
This chapter draws on the author’s archaeological and ethnographic fieldwork in Europe and New Guinea. It explores the role of houses among the first agriculturalists in Europe. The house ... More

Behavioural inferences from Late Pleistocene Aboriginal Australia: seasonality, butchery, and nutrition in southwest Tasmania  

Richard Cosgrove and Jillian Garvey

Detailed research into marsupial behavioural ecology and modelling of past Aboriginal exploitation of terrestrial fauna has been scarce. Poor bone preservation is one limiting factor in ... More

The Bioarchaeology of Health and Well-being  

Charlotte Roberts

Published in print:
May 2013
Published Online:
Aug 2013
This contribution describes the study of palaeopathology, the history of its development, analytical methods used, types of studies done, and its future. Palaeopathology has developed at different ... More

Care and Socialization of Children in the European Bronze Age  

Margarita Sánchez Romero

Published in print:
May 2018
Published Online:
Jun 2018
Care and socialization are practices included in what have been called maintenance activities, a set of works that entangle very specific and characteristic relations and identities. These ... More

Caribbean  

Magdalena Antczak and Andrzej Antczak

Published in print:
Apr 2017
Published Online:
Jun 2017
Pottery figurines made by the indigenous peoples in precolonial times have been a relatively rare finding in the Caribbean. A few dozen recovered across the Greater and Lesser Antilles ... More

The Carpathian and Danubian area  

Aurel Rustoiu

Published Online:
Jun 2018
This chapter provides an overview of Iron Age societies in the eastern Carpathian basin and lower Danube region, from the Great Hungarian Plain to the Black Sea, drawing on funerary and ... More

The Central Andean Region in Prehistory  

Terence N. D'Altroy

Published in print:
Mar 2009
Published Online:
Sep 2012
This article examines the prehistory of the Andean region based on archaeological evidence. It explains that the Andean region is one of the six places in the world where state society ... More

Central European Enclosures  

Jörg Petrasch

Published in print:
Mar 2015
Published Online:
Dec 2013
The Neolithic enclosures of central Europe have been controversially discussed for decades. Generally a combination of ditches, banks and/or palisades, the sizes and potential uses of ... More

The Central Mediterranean and the Aegean  

Lin Foxhall

Published Online:
Jun 2018
The early Iron Age in the Aegean has traditionally been perceived as a period of decline, in contrast to the splendour of the palatial societies of the later Bronze Age, and concomitantly ... More

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