Christopher F. Altes
Geographic information systems (GISs) are a broad category of spatial technologies for gathering, analyzing, and creating data. Such systems provide a means of managing, archiving, and analyzing a wide range of data. This article reviews the three functions of GISs in archaeology, with an eye toward Caribbean landscapes. These functions can generally be described in terms of recording, gathering, and archiving information; processing basic statistical information; and generating new data. In practice, archaeological applications of GISs tend to fall into two categories. The first relates solely to collecting and archiving geospatial data. This application of GISs creates datasets for management and future research. The second applies tools found in GIS platforms for analysis and the creation of new data.
The children in New York City’s nineteenth-century working-class immigrant families were explorers. It was they, more than their parents, who had the time and the nerve to go beyond their immediate neighbourhoods. Neither constrained by regular work nor school (at least until 1874 when school became mandatory), they were free to wander the streets—to work at odd jobs, to challenge the law with minor (and probably some major) illegal acts. Working-class children made their own world outside the tenements where there was no room to play inside. Their lives were relatively unsupervised and they thrived on the freedom. The challenge for urban archaeologists is to find material evidence of working-class children’s activities. This chapter explores the archaeological evidence for working-class children’s lives through a number of excavated sites and brings a new understanding to the life of children in New York city.