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Associative Learning in Invertebrates  

Romuald Nargeot and Alexis Bédécarrats

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Behaviors of invertebrates can be modified by associative learning in a similar manner to those of vertebrates. Two simple forms of associative learning, Pavlovian and operant ... More

Auditory Systems of Drosophila and Other Invertebrates  

Yun Doo Chung and Jeongmi Lee

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Hearing in invertebrates has evolved independently as an adaptation to avoid predators or to mediate intraspecific communication. Although many invertebrate groups are able to respond to ... More

Chemosensory Transduction in Arthropods  

Monika Stengl

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Reception of chemicals via olfaction and gustation are prerequisites to find, distinguish, and recognize food and mates and to avoid dangers. Several receptor gene superfamilies are ... More

Cnidarian Neurobiology  

Richard Satterlie

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Important cnidarian contributions to our understanding of nervous system evolution may be found in the arrangement of conducting systems and their interactions. We see multiple, diffuse ... More

Control of Locomotion in Annelids  

William Kristan

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Oct 2018
This article reviews the status of research on locomotion in segmented worms. It focuses on three major groups (leeches, earthworms, and nereid polychaetes) that have attracted the most ... More

Control of Locomotion in Crustaceans  

Daniel Cattaert and Donald Hine Edwards

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Jun 2017
This chapter will consider the control of posture and walking in decapod crustaceans (crabs, lobsters, rock lobsters, and crayfish). The walking system of crustaceans is composed of five ... More

Control of Locomotion in Hexapods  

Roy E. Ritzmann and Sasha N. Zill

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Feb 2017
This article discusses legged locomotion in insects. It describes the basic patterns of coordinated movement both within each leg and among the various legs. The nervous system controls ... More

Development of the Nervous System of Invertebrates  

Volker Hartenstein

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Jun 2018
The complex architecture of the nervous system is the result of a stereotyped pattern of proliferation and migration of neural progenitors in the early embryo, followed by the outgrowth of ... More

The Divergent Evolution of Arthropod Brains: Ground Pattern Organization and Stability Through Geological Time  

Nicholas J. Strausfeld

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Jun 2018
Occasionally, fossils recovered from lower and middle Cambrian sedimentary rocks contain the remains of nervous system. These residues reveal the symmetric arrangements of brain and ... More

Evolution and Design of Invertebrate Circadian Clocks  

Vu H. Lam and Joanna C. Chiu

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Jun 2017
Invertebrates are an incredibly diverse group of animals that come in all shapes and sizes, and live in a wide range of habitats. In order for all these organisms to perform optimally, ... More

The Feeding Network of Aplysia: Features That Are Distinctive and Shared With Other Molluscs  

Elizabeth C. Cropper, Jian Jing, and Klaudiusz R. Weiss

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Feb 2017
This review focuses on the neural control of feeding in Aplysia. Its purpose is to highlight distinctive features of the behavior and to describe their neural basis. In a number of ... More

Flatworm Neurobiology in the Postgenomic Era  

Paul McVeigh and Aaron G. Maule

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Aug 2017
Flatworm nervous systems comprise central and peripheral components that facilitate coordinated and complex behaviors that are modulated by physiological status and sensory input. The ... More

Genetic Analysis of Behavior in Drosophila  

Björn Brembs

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Feb 2017
The main function of brains is to generate adaptive behavior. Far from being the stereotypical, robot-like insect, the fruit fly Drosophila exhibits astounding flexibility and chooses ... More

Genetics of Behavior in C. elegans  

Denise S. Walker, Yee Lian Chew, and William R. Schafer

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Oct 2017
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is among the most intensely studied animals in modern experimental biology. In particular, because of its amenability to classical and molecular ... More

Identifying Critical Genes, Neurotransmitters, and Circuits for Social Behavior in Invertebrates  

Sarah Certel

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Nov 2017
This article examines the use of invertebrates to investigate the genetic and physiological mechanisms that regulate social behavior. A central goal in behavioral neuroscience is to ... More

Internal Ribosome Entry Site-Mediated Translation in Neuronal Protein Synthesis  

Martin Holcik

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
While the majority of cellular mRNAs are translated by a cap-dependent mechanism, a subset of mRNAs can use an alternative mode of translation that, instead of cap, relies on discreet RNA ... More

Invertebrate Genomics Provide Insights Into the Origin of Synaptic Transmission  

Thomas W. Abrams and Wayne Sossin

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Oct 2018
During the evolution of synapses, existing molecules were exapted to serve in specific synaptic roles. Recent increased availability of assembled transcriptomes from organisms that evolved ... More

Magnetoreception of Invertebrates  

Martin Vacha

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
May 2017
Exploiting invertebrates, such as the fruit fly Drosophila or nematode Caenorhabditis, with a modifiable genome seems to be key to answering the fundamental question of the molecular ... More

Mechanisms of Axonal Degeneration and Regeneration: Lessons Learned From Invertebrates  

Jiaxing Li and Catherine A. Collins

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Feb 2017
In the face of acute or chronic axonal damage, neurons and their axons undergo a number of molecular, cellular, and morphological changes. These changes facilitate two types of responses, ... More

Morphology of Invertebrate Neurons and Synapses  

Ian A. Meinertzhagen

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Despite their often small numbers, the neurons in invertebrate nervous systems can nevertheless constitute many classes, and the nervous systems of little studied or entirely new species ... More

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