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Age-Related and Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: Central Consequences in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus  

Ruili Xie, Tessa-Jonne F. Ropp, Michael R. Kasten, and Paul B. Manis

Hearing loss generally occurs in the auditory periphery but leads to changes in the central auditory system. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and age-related hearing loss (ARHL) affect ... More

Aging Processes in the Subcortical Auditory System  

Donald M. Caspary and Daniel A. Llano

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
As arguably the third most common malady of industrialized populations, age-related hearing loss is associated with social isolation and depression in a subset of the population that will ... More

Associative Learning in Invertebrates  

Romuald Nargeot and Alexis Bédécarrats

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Sep 2017
Behaviors of invertebrates can be modified by associative learning in a similar manner to those of vertebrates. Two simple forms of associative learning, Pavlovian and operant ... More

The Auditory Brainstem Implant: Restoration of Speech Understanding from Electric Stimulation of the Human Cochlear Nucleus  

Robert V. Shannon

Online publication date:
Jan 2019
The auditory brainstem implant (ABI) is a surgically implanted device to electrically stimulate auditory neurons in the cochlear nucleus complex of the brainstem in humans to restore ... More

Auditory Systems of Drosophila and Other Invertebrates  

Yun Doo Chung and Jeongmi Lee

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Mar 2017
Hearing in invertebrates has evolved independently as an adaptation to avoid predators or to mediate intraspecific communication. Although many invertebrate groups are able to respond to ... More

Axon Trajectories in the Auditory Brainstem  

Nell Beatty Cant

Online publication date:
Feb 2019
This chapter summarizes what is known about the organization of the axons that make up the white matter of the auditory brainstem. The sources of the axons in each of the major fiber ... More

Brainstem Encoding of Speech and Music Sounds in Humans  

Nina Kraus and Trent Nicol

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
The encoding of speech and music in the auditory brainstem is available at the human scalp via the auditory-evoked frequency following response. The FFR, primarily reflecting activity in ... More

Cancer and Pain  

Rie Bager Hansen and Sarah Falk

Online publication date:
Nov 2018
Pain is a common and feared complication for many cancer patients. Cancer pain covers numerous pain syndromes; since the treatment is complex, it is essential to assess each individual ... More

Central Nervous System Pain Pathways  

Andrew J. Todd and Fan Wang

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Nociceptive primary afferents detect stimuli that are normally perceived as painful, and these afferents form synapses in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and the spinal trigeminal ... More

Changes in the Inferior Colliculus Associated with Hearing Loss: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss, Age-Related Hearing Loss, Tinnitus and Hyperacusis  

Alan R. Palmer and Joel I. Berger

The inferior colliculus is an important auditory relay center that undergoes fundamental changes following hearing loss, whether noise induced (NIHL) or age related (ARHL). These changes ... More

Chemosensory Transduction in Arthropods  

Monika Stengl

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Reception of chemicals via olfaction and gustation are prerequisites to find, distinguish, and recognize food and mates and to avoid dangers. Several receptor gene superfamilies are ... More

Chloride Channels in Nociceptors  

Uhtaek Oh and Jooyoung Jung

Online publication date:
Mar 2019
Pain may be induced by activation of various ion channels expressed in primary afferent neurons. These channels function as molecular sensors that detect noxious chemical, temperature, or ... More

Cnidarian Neurobiology  

Richard Satterlie

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Important cnidarian contributions to our understanding of nervous system evolution may be found in the arrangement of conducting systems and their interactions. We see multiple, diffuse ... More

The Cochlear Nuclei: Synaptic Plasticity in Circuits and Synapses in the Ventral Cochlear Nuclei  

Donata Oertel, Xiao-Jie Cao, and Alberto Recio-Spinoso

Plasticity in neuronal circuits is essential for optimizing connections as animals develop and for adapting to injuries and aging, but it can also distort the processing, as well as ... More

The Cochlear Nucleus as a Generator of Tinnitus-Related Signals  

J.A. Kaltenbach and D.A. Godfrey

Tinnitus most commonly begins with alterations of input from the ear resulting from cochlear trauma or overstimulation of the ear. Because the cochlear nucleus is the first processing ... More

Control of Locomotion in Annelids  

William Kristan

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Oct 2018
This article reviews the status of research on locomotion in segmented worms. It focuses on three major groups (leeches, earthworms, and nereid polychaetes) that have attracted the most ... More

Control of Locomotion in Crustaceans  

Daniel Cattaert and Donald Hine Edwards

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Jun 2017
This chapter will consider the control of posture and walking in decapod crustaceans (crabs, lobsters, rock lobsters, and crayfish). The walking system of crustaceans is composed of five ... More

Control of Locomotion in Hexapods  

Roy E. Ritzmann and Sasha N. Zill

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Feb 2017
This article discusses legged locomotion in insects. It describes the basic patterns of coordinated movement both within each leg and among the various legs. The nervous system controls ... More

Cortical Plasticity  

Sally A. Marik and Charles D. Gilbert

Online publication date:
Apr 2018
The cerebral cortex is a learning engine. The ability to encode information about sensory experience or practiced movements is a universal property of all cortical areas. This capacity, ... More

Dendritic Targeting and Regulatory RNA Control of Local Neuronal Translation  

Taesun Eom, Ilham A. Muslimov, Anna Iacoangeli, and Henri Tiedge

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
This chapter reviews current developments in the area of translational control in neurons. It focuses on the activity-dependent translational modulation by neuronal regulatory RNAs, ... More

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