Michael D. Reisig
This article is divided into five sections. Section I provides an overview of community and problem-oriented policing, highlighting the key of elements of the two approaches. Section II discusses the history of the American police, with an emphasis on the antecedents and outcomes associated with prior reform efforts. Section III describes the federal government's involvement in community and problem-oriented policing via the COPS program, and reviews the research assessing the impact of the program on crime rates is reviewed. Section IV focuses on the theoretical frameworks that guide community and problem-oriented policing interventions, and extant empirical research. Community policing is rooted in two theories of neighborhood crime (i.e., broken windows and social disorganization), whereas problem-oriented policing is often couched in theories of criminal opportunity (i.e., rational choice and routine activity). Section V concludes with a discussion specifying priorities for future research.
Ajay Sandhu and Kevin D. Haggerty
The public now expects that police work will be video recorded. This challenges the foundational axiom that police work is a “low-visibility” occupation. Technological and social developments are rapidly making aspects of police work increasingly visible. A consensus seems to be emerging that this new high-visibility status undermines public trust and challenges police legitimacy. This article analyzes this situation and questions the extent to which videos of the police are producing uniformly negative outcomes for them. It emphasizes how the police are involved in an ongoing struggle for legitimacy, played out on a public stage and involving different images, audiences, and interpretations of recorded police behavior, paying attention to the complex and countervailing dynamics of police visibility, empowerment, and legitimacy. It highlights some of these dimensions by drawing on research on policing in Canada to accentuate the ways individual line officers relate to their heightened camera visibility.