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African American History and African American Theology  

Stephen C. Finley

Print publication date:
Aug 2014
Online publication date:
Jul 2014
The history of African Americans is important in the formation of, but presents a challenge to, black theology. African American history provided a lens through which to view the world and ... More

The Age of Enlightenment  

Alan Charles Kors

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This article discusses the meanings, origin, context, scope, and central intellectual claims of atheism in the Age of the European Enlightenment. It emphasizes debates about proofs of the ... More

American Jewish History  

Hasia Diner

Print publication date:
Dec 2004
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
American Jewish history as a field of scholarly inquiry takes as its subject-matter the experience of Jews in the United States and places it within the context of both modern Jewish ... More

Atheism and the Rise of Science  

Taner Edis

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013
Atheists, conservative theists, and religious liberals often read the history of science in ways that support their own position. Atheists expect continual mutual support between science ... More

The Book of Enoch and the Qumran Scrolls  

James C. VanderKam

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
The work that is today called the Book of Enoch or 1 Enoch is actually a collection of ancient booklets written at different times by several authors, almost all of them composed in the ... More

Buddhist Studies beyond the Nation-State  

Richard K. Payne

Online publication date:
Jun 2016
This essay examines a variety of dysfunctional consequences of employing modern nation-states as the default organizing category for Buddhist studies regardless of the period being ... More

Central and Eastern Europe  

Irena Borowik, Branko Ančić, and Radosław Tyrała

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013
This essay offers a fresh exploration of atheism in post-communist Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), while also providing an overview of existing research into atheism and non-religion in ... More

The Classical Origins of Natural Theology  

Stephen R. L. Clark

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Jun 2013
This chapter reviews classical accounts of natural theology. These include accounts by Hesiod of Boeotia in the late 8th century , Parmenides of Elea (early 5th century ), Empedocles of Acragas ( ... More

1Corinthians  

Judith L. Kovacs

Print publication date:
Jan 2011
Online publication date:
May 2011
One of the earliest surviving Christian writings, Paul's First Letter to the Corinthians provides a fascinating picture of the life of one early Christian community and the challenges its ... More

Desire and the Body in the Patristic Period  

Mathew Kuefler

Print publication date:
Nov 2014
Online publication date:
Apr 2014
The period between the third and fifth centuries CE was crucial for the development of Christianity not least for ideas about desire and the body. Patristic writers hoped for the ... More

Duns Scotus on the Female Gender  

Marilyn McCord Adams

Print publication date:
Nov 2014
Online publication date:
Apr 2014
Scotus’ estimate of the female gender is shaped by his view that Mary is pre-eminent among merely human saints. Because Mary must be a real mother, he rejects the Aristotelian view that ... More

The Early Chinese Endeavor to Interpret Early Chinese Religions  

K.E. Brashier

Early Chinese writers rose above particular descriptions of spirits and sacrifices to a meta-discourse about the nature of spirits and the meaning of sacrifices. That is, they themselves ... More

Early Modern Natural Theologies  

Scott Mandelbrote

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Jun 2013
This chapter discusses natural theology in the early modern period. It demonstrates that early modern natural theology was a contested arena, in which a number of different standpoints might be ... More

Eastern European Jewry in the Modern Period: 1750–1939  

Michael Stanislawski

Print publication date:
Dec 2004
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article notes that the study of the modern history of East European Jews is not a field driven at present by deep conceptual or ideological divides or abiding scholarly or ... More

Esther and Hitler: A Second Triumphant Purim  

Jo Carruthers

Print publication date:
Jan 2011
Online publication date:
May 2011
The Book of Esther tells the tale of a prime minister, Haman, who, through various political machinations, attempts to annihilate the Jews of the ancient Persian empire. Esther, queen of ... More

Ethical Theories among Medieval Jewish Philosophers  

Warren Zev Harvey

Print publication date:
Dec 2012
Online publication date:
Jan 2013
This chapter discusses the ethical views of medieval Jewish philosophers, showing that the varieties of Jewish philosophy in the medieval period defy easy categorization, let alone ... More

European Jewry in the Early Modern Period: 1492–1750  

Elisheva Carlebach

Print publication date:
Dec 2004
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article describes conceptions of the early modern period in Jewish historiography, the Italian Renaissance, intellectual history, the Jews of Central Europe in the early modern ... More

The First Millennium  

Mark Edwards

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
While Sceptics canvassed arguments against the existence of any gods, and Cynics were abrasive in their strictures on conventional religion, late antiquity offers no indubitable evidence ... More

From the Pre-Socratics to the Hellenistic Age  

David Sedley

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Jul 2013
‘Atheism’ is a term that has historically carried a wide range of meanings and connotations. Popular speech, in particular, admits of a range of definitions, but the same is true of ... More

Historicizing and Translating Religion  

Giovanni Casadio

Print publication date:
Nov 2016
Online publication date:
Jun 2017
This chapter justifies the general application of the taxon ‘religion’ as a unitary analytical concept situated in history, and locates religions as interculturally translatable and ... More

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