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‘A Promise Made is a Debt Unpaid’: Nietzsche on the Morality of Commitment and the Commitments of Morality  

Mark Migotti

Print publication date:
Sep 2013
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This article discusses what we can learn about promising and about Nietzsche’s critique of morality from his discussion of sovereign promising in the opening sections of the second essay of ... More

Abortion  

John Harris and Søren Holm

Print publication date:
Sep 2005
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Abortion is one of those classic problems that has been discussed in all of the major ‘fertile periods’ of practical philosophy, from the flourishing of Greek thought, through the medieval ... More

Abortion and Death  

Don Marquis

Print publication date:
Dec 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
This chapter, which examines views about abortion and death, discusses claims about abortion and explains some ways for considering these claims to be true. It analyzes whether abortion ... More

Abortion and Public Health Ethics  

Mahmoud F. Fathalla

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Feb 2019
There is an ethical imperative to take public health action to eliminate the global problem of unsafe abortion. The moral obligation is dictated by the magnitude of the problem, the health ... More

Abortion Revisited  

Don Marquis

Print publication date:
Feb 2009
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
The three major classical accounts of the morality of abortion are all subject to at least one major problem. Can we do better? This article aims to discuss three accounts that purport to ... More

Access to Basic Reproductive Rights: Global Challenges  

Sheelagh McGuinness and Heather Widdows

Print publication date:
Feb 2017
Online publication date:
Apr 2016
If women are to have true equality with men, they must be able to control the number of children they have and the time of childbirth. Access to family planning services, particularly safe ... More

Access to Pregnancy-Related Services: Public Health Ethics Issues  

Anne Drapkin Lyerly, Elana Jaffe, and Margaret Olivia Little

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Feb 2019
Advancing fair access to evidence-based pregnancy-related services is a critical public health priority. It is widely recognized that there are inequalities in lifesaving interventions. ... More

Accountability and Implicit Bias: A Study in Scepticism about Responsibility  

Gideon Rosen

Print publication date:
Apr 2022
Online publication date:
Apr 2022
Are we morally blameworthy when we act from implicit bias? The chapter argues that implicit biases generate wrongful action by generating strong normative illusions—vivid false beliefs ... More

Accountability, Answerability, and Attributability: On Different Kinds of Moral Responsibility  

Sofia Jeppsson

Print publication date:
Mar 2022
Online publication date:
Feb 2022
This chapter provides an overview and brief critical discussion of moral responsibility pluralism: that is, theories according to which there are several different kinds of moral ... More

Achievement and Meaning in Life  

Gwen Bradford

Print publication date:
Jun 2022
Online publication date:
Apr 2022
Achievements play a key role in many accounts of meaning in life. What characterizes projects that are the best sources of objective worth and meaning? A natural thought is that the ... More

Acquiring Aristotelian Virtue  

Nafsika Athanassoulis

Print publication date:
Feb 2018
Online publication date:
Dec 2017
This chapter examines the role of the virtuous agent in the acquisition of virtue. It rejects the view of the virtuous agent as a direct model for imitation and instead focuses on recent ... More

Act Consequentialism and the No-Difference Challenge  

Holly Lawford-Smith and William Tuckwell

Print publication date:
Dec 2020
Online publication date:
Oct 2020
According to act-consequentialism, only actions that make a difference to an outcome can be morally bad. Yet, there are classes of actions that don’t make a difference, but nevertheless ... More

Action  

Alfred R. Mele

Print publication date:
Nov 2007
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
What are actions? And how are actions to be explained? These two central questions of the philosophy of action call, respectively, for a theory of the nature of action and a theory of the ... More

Actualism, Possibilism, and the Nature of Consequentialism  

Yishai Cohen and Travis Timmerman

Print publication date:
Dec 2020
Online publication date:
Oct 2020
The actualism/possibilism debate in ethics is about whether counterfactuals of freedom concerning what an agent would freely do if she were in certain circumstances even partly determine ... More

Adam Smith  

James R. Otteson

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Apr 2013
The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759) is Adam Smith's major contribution to ethical thought. Although it underwent six revisions during his lifetime, its primary arguments did not change, ... More

Adaptive Preferences and the Moral Psychology of Oppression  

Serene J. Khader

Print publication date:
Apr 2022
Online publication date:
Apr 2022
Feminist philosophers argue that close attention to the lives of oppressed individuals can yield important insights about the requirements of autonomous agency. This chapter examines two ... More

Advocacy and Research  

Rebecca Dresser

Online publication date:
Jan 2021
In recent decades, patient advocates have joined scientists in lobbying for research funds from government agencies, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit entities. Advocates also seek to ... More

Affirmative Action  

Walter Feinberg

Print publication date:
Sep 2005
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Affirmative action is a term used in the USA to depict a set of laws, policies, guidelines, and government-mandated and government-sanctioned administrative practices, including those of ... More

Agency in Mental Illness and Cognitive Disability  

Dominic Murphy and Natalia Washington

Print publication date:
Apr 2022
Online publication date:
Apr 2022
This chapter begins by sketching an account of morally responsible agency and the general conditions under which it may fail. We discuss how far individuals with psychiatric diagnoses may ... More

Aging Populations and Public Health Ethics  

Lois Shepherd

Print publication date:
Sep 2019
Online publication date:
Jan 2019
This chapter examines three primary public health goals relating to elderly populations: promoting healthy aging (including aging in place), reducing health inequities, and extending life ... More

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