This chapter aims to provide an overview of glass manufacture in Britain, with a focus on its transition from craft-working status in the sixteenth century to the industrial mass production of the nineteenth century. It uses evidence for innovation from archaeological investigations, especially below-ground remains of furnaces, to illustrate the development and progress of the industry not otherwise recorded. This includes the shift from wood to coal to gas as fuel supplies. The remains reviewed include those of the three main types of production: bottle glass, ornamental and table glass, and window glass. Each needed a different type of furnace and ancillary process buildings, and these can be clearly identified in the archaeological record.
Richard T. Callaghan
This article examines the geographical setting and the effects of past sea levels, the present and past marine climate, and watercraft that may have been used in the Caribbean region. It notes that understanding seafaring in the Antilles is critical to understanding the nature of migration, cultural interaction, and the cultures themselves. Acquiring this understanding has been hampered by two factors. The first is the paucity of early historic reports regarding the size and speed of watercraft and the geographic knowledge held by the general population. The second factor is the “stepping-stone” configuration of the islands, which has led researchers to make assumptions about routes of migration and contact that are not necessarily well supported. Aside from contacts with South America, other mainland contacts have often been rejected out of hand without adequate analysis.
Vicki Cummings and David Robinson
This chapter details an archaeological approach to sites in the nuclear industry. Set against a background of a consideration of Cold War sites more generally, the chapter suggests that nuclear sites have seen little investigation because many are still in use. Furthermore, there are associated risks of contamination (radiation) along with security issues to consider. However, the effects of nuclear sites can be documented, in terms of how they affect both people and landscapes around them. Moreover, it is possible to identify the material outcomes of such sites, albeit in slightly less conventional ways than other industrial processes. Thus, these sites should be considered an important part of our industrial heritage, and can benefit from future archaeological investigation.
Marilyn Palmer and Michael Nevell
This chapter concentrates on the archaeology of the coal industry within Britain, with a focus on extraction, processing, and transport, while placing the eighteenth-, nineteenth-, and twentieth-century industrial remains within a wider European context. It describes the remains of the extraction process, mostly now only visible above ground, although opencast mining does sometimes produce below-ground evidence. It looks at the issues of drainage and haulage at colliery sites, the preparation of the coal on the surface, particularly its conversion to coke, and its role in the production of gas. The transport of coal from the pithead, especially using waggonways and canals, is also discussed. The role of workers’ housing is also reviewed
This chapter deals with the physical remains of the iron and steel industry in Britain. The focus is on extraction and processing rather than the products. The archaeological evidence spans the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries, but with an emphasis on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Although the traditional industrial archaeological focus has been the charcoal an coke blast furnace remains, there are many other production elements that survive either as standing buildings below ground remains which are discussed. These include the surviving physical remains of ore extraction and processing, the puddling furnace, smelting, blast furnaces, and finery forges. In the later nineteenth the introduction of mass steel making revolutionized the industry producing a further set of industrial monuments and concentrating production in fewer locations
This chapter surveys the coinage issued by Arsacid, Elymaean, and fratarakā rulers. The mints and denominations are described and the use of Greek in coin legends is discussed. The iconography of these issues is treated, as are problems of chronology and attribution. Specific elements, such as fire altars and portraits, are highlighted.
Sean Winter and Alistair Paterson
Australia is the only continent besides Antarctica where the European settlement occurred only within the industrial era. Industrial archaeology is potentially an ideal discipline from which to understand the settlement of Australia, given that industrial production was a present and defining factor of all historical activities undertaken after 1788. This chapter considers how archaeological perspectives have provided an understanding of land settlement, with a focus on recent studies. Historical archaeology (of which industrial archaeology is sometimes a subset) has been present in Australia only since the 1970s, while other disciplines such as geography and history have been providing information about colonial land settlement for a longer period of time. This chapter argues that collaboration across disciplines is an effective method that should characterize future work, and suggests future challenges for archaeologies of industry as we consider the implications of the Anthropocene. Additionally, the chapter advocates that previously separate categories of human society and the environment can be effectively framed together at various different spatial levels.
Australia is quintessentially a maritime nation where sea travel and transportation have been vitally important. Despite being an island, Australia hasd never completely felt isolated, and the indigenous peoples were never cut off from the rest of the world. This article presents four case studies in order to provide insights into the types and extent of maritime archaeological research that has been conducted over more than three decades in Australia. One of the great influences of Australian maritime archaeology over the years has been the Australasian Institute for Maritime Archaeology. A drawback in Australian maritime archaeology is the lack of funding for academic research. Australia has developed legislation for the protection of the historic shipwreck component of its underwater cultural heritage.
Establishments selling alcohol for consumption on the premises were a feature of industrialized societies. Their origins lay in the European alehouse and tavern, but colonization and emigration took them to other parts of the world, notably Australasia and North America. Distinctive building types—the public house (‘pub’), bar, hotel, and saloon—emerged in a number of countries during the nineteenth century, combining social and communal functions with the sale of alcohol, their design influenced by regulatory pressure as well as commercial imperatives. The temperance movement had a significant impact, its campaigns leading to increased regulation of the sale of alcohol and, in places, its prohibition. Archaeological investigation can shed light on their development, construction, design, ownership, and clientele, as well as on the activities which took place in them, supplementing evidence from architectural study and historical research.
This chapter deals with the technology and buildings of the car industry as a case study of the problems and rewards of researching a twentieth-century industry. It reviews the research sources and field techniques used to build a database of car factories in Britain. It then goes on to assess the levels of physical survival and the role of conservation using the city of Coventry, the focus of British car-making in the twentieth century, as a case study. This was all done in the pre-Internet and email times, when, lacking such aids as Google Earth, sites had to be visited in person and necessary arrangements made by letter or telephone. Following identification of buildings, the chapter then describes the additional information that was sought for these sites before describing the outcomes from the survey. In conclusion, the lessons learned for future work, and wider applications of the principles demonstrated are discussed.
Fredric L. Quivik
Industrial waste has several meanings on the landscape. Waste deposits and the infrastructure developed to manage them are part of the cultural landscape and are recognized by cultural resource professionals and historic preservation advocates as features worthy of study and perhaps preservation and interpretation. Industrial waste is also often comprised of hazardous materials and therefore is the subject, in the United States, of intensive efforts at remediation, during which cultural features may be destroyed. Both preservation and remediation are worthy societal objectives, but they often come into conflict on a given landscape. Because the preservation of industrial waste may be a more foreign concept to many readers, this article articulates why preservation may be a valuable undertaking and, using the copper-mining landscape of south-western Montana as a case study, describes how advocates for the two conflicting objectives have tried to negotiate resolutions.
Hanna Steyne and Nigel Crowe
The development of the network of navigable inland waterways and canals in Britain was a fundamental step in the growth and spread of industrialization in Britain. These waterways played an important role in the early transportation of raw materials, particularly coal, to factory sites, and of finished goods to the coast for national and international distribution. The importance of the waterways, however, is not solely technological, but also for the impact they had on the landscape, the peripatetic community employed on the water, and the communities that developed to maintain, support, and run the system. This chapter discusses the development, growth, and decline of inland waterways and their central role in the industrialization of Britain. Through a discussion of the upstanding, working, and buried archaeological remains associated with inland waterways this chapter presents the current state of research and suggests future directions.
A Celebration of Growth, Independence, and Worth: Symbolism and Functionality in Swimming Pools for Developing Industrial Communities
Gordon S. Marino
Drawing on a wealth of archaeological evidence, this chapter seeks to explore the development of urban expansion and civic pride through the emergence of differing designs of swimming pools. These iconic buildings are placed in their historical context and comparisons are drawn with contemporary developments in other fields of architecture. The key motivational factors of hygiene, politics, and recreation are analyzed, as is the emergence of civic pride. Both functionality and status of the new building types are explored, as the communities evolved into the modern world. The chapter further demonstrates how buildings and architectural design are not solely functional, but also reflect emerging elements of status, social and political power dynamics.
Eleanor Conlin Casella
Representing the largest class of artefacts recovered from post-medieval and historic sites, ceramics play a central role in the archaeology of industrialized societies. This chapter outlines the main production technologies involved in the creation of ceramic domestic wares and clay smoking pipes. It demonstrates how changes in fabric type and manufacture technologies reflected a broader shift from craft-based local production and distribution networks to industrial mass-production and globalized commercial distribution. It also summarizes the primary diagnostic characteristics commonly used for both stylistic and archival dating of these ubiquitous post-medieval artefacts. Finally, this chapter highlights the role of ceramics in archaeological studies of aesthetic and decorative changes, ethnicity and colonialism, social identities, consumption patterns, and domestic foodways.
Among the most familiar archaeological material signatures of the late eighteenth- and nineteenth-century world is British-made pottery decorated with the ubiquitous Willow Pattern transfer print. This chapter traces the history of this design since its inception in the late eighteenth century within the context of the British ceramic revolution, before assessing the romantic story that became associated with the pattern. Willow Pattern representation in song, verse, literature, and other mediums during the Victorian period is also considered. After examining Willow Pattern services related to three contemporary households at different ends of the social spectrum in Victorian London, this chapter concludes by reviewing how the pattern has remained in popular culture and influenced design during the twentieth and twenty-first century.
Churches and chapels form an indelible mark on the landscapes of Britain’s industrial cities. They were built in huge numbers by the major Christian denominations in order to compete with one another and to attract the working classes to religion. Industrial archaeologists have, however, largely ignored the material provision of Christianity in the lives of ordinary people whether they attended for religious worship or to take part in the myriad of social activities that many churches and chapels provided. This chapter looks at the different approaches taken by the Nonconformist organizations—such as the Wesleyan Methodists and the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA)—to provide both spiritual and leisure activities for the working classes in Britain’s industrial cities with unique building types that, materially, responded more to the industrial cities they were placed in than they did to religion.
The Cold War (1946–1989) in the developed Western world) is represented by a diverse range of architectural and archaeological traces, some of which are monumental in scale and in their impact on the landscape. These bunkers, command centres, and airfields have become symbols of an industrial Cold War era, their monumentality representing the scale of the destruction that might have ensued. But these monumental remains are not all that survive, and they only tell one part of a complex story that involves government policy, global geopolitics, research and development, industry, and opposition. The opposition is a fascinating and easily overlooked aspect of this story, not least archaeologically as its traces are so ephemeral, almost ‘prehistoric’ in their subtlety and their character. This chapter explores the industrial character of the Cold War era through these most subtle but significant of traces.
This chapter reviews the importance of commodities and consumption to archaeologies of the modern industrialized world. After centuries of New World exploration saw exotic luxuries transformed into everyday commodities, the Industrial Revolution delivered a new array of domestic goods to the emerging middle classes in the Old World. The practice of household provisioning changed for good as humble town markets were dwarfed by palaces of consumption. Scholars from many fields have analyzed consumer behaviour to explore individual desire and social order, debating the significance of social, cultural, economic, and material change, past and present. Consequently, consumer theory remains diverse and ‘complex’. Archaeology offers a unique perspective and recent research in transnational archaeologies have revealed local and market-specific consumption patterns against a backdrop of global trade. Current trends suggest that future archaeologies of consumption will enable a greater pursuit of both the production and consumption of commodities.
Following a review of the early origins of the discipline on industrial archaeology in the UK, this chapter seeks to explore the ways in which it has developed over the last seventy years. The initial imperative in the UK was to ensure the survival of existing sites, but links with practitioners of historical archaeology led to a move from technological explanations of sites to the inclusion of more socially oriented interpretations. Subsurface archaeology assumed greater importance from the 1990s with the involvement of archaeological professionals on developer-funded excavations. Present and future developments include increasing work on sites of the twenty-first century; digital reconstructions; the reanimation of industrial spaces; and the development of industrial archaeology in the Middle and Far East.
This article is an introduction to the concept of maritime archaeology. In the field of archaeology, the study of a shipwreck endeavors to reconstitute the original ship. Thus, nautical archaeology belongs to the larger domain of maritime archaeology. The study of shipboard artifacts and cargo comes before a structural analysis is possible. Therefore, one must know how to anticipate the expected results in order to take into consideration the ensemble of data. A ship is an assembly of elements closely linked together, which express their true role in their relation to the whole. This article explains the conception phase. Several operations are necessary to achieve construction of a ship. The conception phase must then lead to a realization phase. The realization phase must materialize, with the help of diverse processes or methods, the construction principles chosen for the structural and shape concept of the ship.