Steven G. Little, Angeleque Akin-Little, and Natasha S. Medley
The following chapter provides detailed information on interventions for school crises and violence. The interventions are placed in the context of the three-tier model, and promoting wellness in the schools. Further, the interventions are conceptualized along the primary, secondary, and tertiary continuum. Intervention specifics are provided for individual aggressive students, gang violence, and bullying. The emerging phenomenon of cyber-bullying, and how to intervene, is also detailed in the section on bullying. Trauma is also discussed, with trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (TF-CBT) featured as the most efficacious intervention. Empirical support for each intervention is presented, along with a rationale for the importance for primary prevention whenever possible.
H. Lee Swanson
This chapter provides an overview of definitions, assessment procedures, and instructional treatments for children with learning disabilities. A focus is placed on assessment issues related to reading and math disabilities. Also reviewed are potential causes of learning disabilities, as well as some of the controversies (e.g., role of IQ testing, discrepancy models, RTI) related to assessment practices. An operational definition of LD is discussed that focuses on using cutoff scores from standardized measures related to IQ and specific academic domains (e.g., reading, math).
Irene W. Leigh and Robert Q. Pollard
While the majority of deaf people are mentally healthy and able to pursue self-actualizing lives, this chapter addresses critical issues in providing mental health services to deaf adults in need. It covers the history of research in mental health and the evolution of service delivery for this population. Information on the incidence and assessment of psychopathology outlines past findings and current issues. Psychological evaluations continue to be an area of concern due to the need for fluency in the deaf client’s preferred language as well as the challenges in arriving at accurate diagnoses. In turn, treatment approaches now focus on cultural relevance; however research on best practices is still in its infancy. The results of public policy advocacy are beginning to influence trends in program development and administration. Opportunities for training have improved, particularly for upcoming clinicians who are deaf and hard-of-hearing. Despite the difficulties in providing mental health services, the long-term economic benefit of keeping people mentally healthy as opposed to neglecting their mental health needs should serve as justification for service enhancements.
Gordon C. Nagayama Hall and Alicia Yee Ibaraki
Standard psychotherapies may be useful for those who fit well in mainstream US culture, but they may need to be culturally adapted for those whose fit is not as good. We review the literature on the generalizability of standard cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as well as the literature on cultural adaptations of CBT. We offer a conceptual model for assessing an individual’s goodness of fit with his or her sociocultural and cultural environments and for determining implications for interventions. The model considers an individual’s fit in the mainstream culture and in the traditional culture and provides treatment recommendations on the basis of relative cultural match or mismatch. Considering goodness of fit with cultural and sociocultural environments may provide guidance on the relative merits of culturally adapted versus unadapted psychotherapy.
The prevalence of chronic medical conditions in children has nearly doubled in the last several decades. Both Division 16 of the American Psychological Association (APA) and the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) advocate that school psychologists play a primary role in consulting and collaborating with other professionals for the health and wellness of children. It is imperative that school psychologists look beyond assessment and general academic functioning in the service provision for such children, and instead encourage prevention, early diagnosis, and health promotion. This chapter provides specific recommendations for such services related to the pediatric health issues of childhood obesity, prenatal cocaine exposure, and lead exposure.
This chapter informs school psychologists about recent growth in the use of psychotropic drugs with children and adolescents, and related controversies (e.g., polypharmacy, off-label prescribing, drug industry marketing practices, and publication biases). It describes a potential role as “knowledge brokers” for school psychologists with appropriate competencies to assist decision-makers in selecting drug, psychosocial, or combination treatments. The chapter reviews safety concerns, including U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warnings and advisories, and common drug side effects and interaction effects. It reviews efficacy evidence, including FDA drug indications and approvals, randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses of RCTs. The chapter identifies several future research directions which school psychologists may be uniquely qualified to pursue.
Elizabeth J. D'Amico, Karen Chan Osilla, and Stefanie A. Stern
It is well known that the prevalence of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use in the United States increases during the middle school and high school years. The current chapter focuses on the effects of AOD use on youth, and risk and protective factors that may contribute to initiation and escalation of AOD use during this developmental period. The chapter also discusses the importance of creating developmentally appropriate prevention and intervention programming for this age group. The authors provide data on several middle school and high school prevention and intervention programs that have delivered curricula in the school setting to attempt to decrease AOD use. They focus on programs that had a student-only component for their program and had also published at least a 1-year follow-up. They also discuss potential future directions for prevention and intervention for this age group.
Caroline N. Racine Gilles, Thomas R. Kratochwill, Jacquelyn N. Felt, Clarissa J. Schienebeck, and Cara A. Vaccarello
Problem solving consultation has been identified as a practice guideline in the delivery of evidence-based interventions (EBIs). This mandate is likely to advance the current initiatives of implementing EBIs and incorporating multi-tiered prevention models within the school setting. The purpose of this chapter is to review the most prominent models of consultation (mental health, behavioral, organizational development, instructional, and technology training) and discuss the associated features of each model. While differences exist among the models, all involve problem solving expertise of the consultant (conceptualized as an individual or team) within the context of a triadic relationship. The remainder of the chapter is devoted to the concept of problem solving consultation (PSC), which is a broad term that incorporates and draws on the aforementioned models. Finally, we offer some recommendations for the professional practice of PSC within the context of evidence-based practice.
Laura B. Allen, Jennie C. I. Tsao, Caryn Freeman, and Lonnie K. Zeltzer
This chapter describes and reviews the evidence for a range of psychological treatments to assist children with medical problems. The interventions discussed in this chapter are designed to address the distress associated with a range of medical problems in children by reducing stress and anxiety, improving patients’ abilities to cope with their illness, and by encouraging developmentally appropriate behaviors to promote social, academic and family functioning. The focus of this chapter is on the treatment of chronic, nonmalignant pain, since this condition involves the complex interaction of biological, psychological and social aspects and is thus well suited to psychosocial intervention. This biopsychosocial model is at the core of psychological interventions for chronic medical problems in children which aim to promote active, adaptive coping with symptoms and illness-related disability.
Reducing Coercion in Schools: The Impact of School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports
Robert R. Horner and Kent McIntosh
The use of punitive discipline systems in schools establishes the foundation of coercive dynamics. Adults all too often establish aversive contingencies that inadvertently prompt and maintain unwanted behavior by students. Three recent themes in addressing school discipline systems include (1) emphasizing reward of desired behavior above punishment of undesired behavior, (2) implementing systems of support at the whole-school level, and (3) introducing a “multitiered” approach to discipline systems that matches the level of support to the need of the student. These three themes are linked within a schoolwide approach labeled “positive behavioral interventions and supports” (PBIS). The chapter presents the core features of School-wide PBIS and describes how those features reduce the detrimental impact of coercive dynamics.
Short- and Long-term Impacts of a Coercion Theory–Based Intervention on Aggression on the School Playground
J. Mark Eddy, Betsy J. Feldman, and Charles R. Martinez Jr.
Aggression between students at school is a common problem, particularly within the context of the school playground. Key mechanisms in coercion theory, including positive and negative reinforcement for aggression and peer deviancy training, can operate with abandon on school playgrounds without adult supervision, monitoring, and appropriate intervention. The Linking the Interests of Families and Teachers (LIFT) multimodal preventive intervention, designed to address aggression on the playground, is described. The short-term and intermediate follow-up findings from a randomized controlled trial of LIFT on aggression on the playground as well as other forms of child antisocial behavior are overviewed. Long-term follow-up findings on the relations between playground aggression and antisocial behaviors during mid-adolescence and emerging adulthood are then reported. It is argued that to be effective, coercion theory–based prevention programs like LIFT need to continue across elementary school and into secondary school, rather than be delivered at only one point in time.
Though targeted attacks at schools are rare events, educators and behavioral health professionals working in those settings must evaluate threats and threatening situations when they occur. Schools across the world have experimented with different methods over time, but the threat assessment approach—particularly executed by an interdisciplinary team—has emerged as a best practice. This chapter describes the results of the Safe School Initiative, an in-depth case analysis of 37 targeted school attacks involving 41 attackers over a 25-year period, and their implications for understanding the attackers, the situations, the settings, and the targets. It addresses the continuum of threats that schools may encounter and offers some heuristics for decision making, including recent research on key indicators of intent. It concludes by emphasizing the need for schools to have incident and post-incident response plans to mitigate harm if an attack does occur.