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Alzheimer’s Disease: Causes, Mechanisms, and Steps Toward Prevention  

Se Hoon Choi and Rudolph E. Tanzi

Online publication date:
Sep 2020
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly; it is clinically characterized by progressive memory loss and catastrophic cognitive dysfunction. ... More

Changes in TMS measures induced by repetitive TMS  

Joseph Classen, Ying-Zu Huang, and Christoph Zrenner

Commonly used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protocols, including regular rTMS, intermittent and continuous theta-burst stimulation (TBS) and quadripulse stimulation ... More

Changes in TMS measures of cortical excitability induced by transcranial direct and alternating current stimulation  

Michael A. Nitsche, Walter Paulus, and Gregor Thut

Brain stimulation with weak electrical currents (transcranial electrical stimulation, tES) is known already for about 60 years as a technique to generate modifications of cortical ... More

Clinical utility of TMS-EMG measures  

Robert Chen and Kai-Hsiang Stanley Chen

This chapter focuses on the utility of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for clinical diagnosis and follow-up. It first introduces the methods to measure corticospinal excitability, ... More

Combining transcranial brain stimulation and PET/SPECT molecular imaging  

Sang Soo Cho and Antonio P. Strafella

Transcranial brain stimulation (TMS) was introduced in 1985 by Barker and his colleagues. Since then, further improvements in technology have allowed additional applications and new ... More

Computational methods for dosimetry  

Axel Thielscher, Kristoffer H. Madsen, Gary E. Strangman, and Bradley E. Treeby

Computational methods for dosimetry allow estimating and optimizing the spatial distribution and strength of the induced fields and waves in the brain, based on detailed models of the head ... More

Computational neurostimulation  

Ainslie Johnstone, James J. Bonaiuto, and Sven Bestmann

Computational neurostimulation is the use of biologically grounded computational models to investigate the mechanism of action of brain stimulation and predict the impact of transcranial ... More

A conceptional framework for combining brain mapping and brain stimulation  

Anke Ninija Karabanov and Hartwig Roman Siebner

Here, we introduce a conceptual framework for studies that combine non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) with neuroimaging. We outline the type of neuroscientific questions ... More

Cortical silent period  

Markus Kofler, Ulf Ziemann, and Vasilios K. Kimiskidis

The cortical silent period (cSP) refers to a period of suppression or silencing of ongoing electromyographic (EMG) activity during voluntary muscle contraction induced by a magnetic ... More

Emotional Memory in the Human Brain  

Leonard Faul and Kevin S. LaBar

Online publication date:
Sep 2020
Across a lifetime, people tend to remember some experiences better than others, and often these biases in memory are fueled by the emotions felt when initially encoding an event. The ... More

Ethical and Legal Issues in Transcranial Stimulation for Cognitive Enhancement  

Anita S. Jwa

Transcranial stimulation has recently been gaining momentum as a promising tool for cognitive enhancement. Like other emerging biomedical technologies, however, the promises of transcranial ... More

Face Processing and TMS  

David Pitcher

Faces are rich sources of social information that simultaneously convey someone’s identity, attentional focus, and emotional state. Humans process this wealth of socially relevant ... More

Genetic Analysis of Behavior in Drosophila  

Björn Brembs

Print publication date:
Apr 2019
Online publication date:
Feb 2017
The main function of brains is to generate adaptive behavior. Far from being the stereotypical, robot-like insect, the fruit fly Drosophila exhibits astounding flexibility and chooses ... More

Insights into Cognitive Disorders in Aging and Mental Illness: Molecular Influences on Circuits of the Prefrontal Cortex  

Amy Arnsten

Online publication date:
Sep 2020
The newly evolved prefrontal cortex underlies our highest order cognitivewe functions yet is remarkably vulnerable to dysfunction in most mental disorders. The prefrontal cortex subserves ... More

Motor threshold, motor evoked potential, central motor conduction time  

Sein H. Schmidt and Stephan A. Brandt

In this chapter, we survey parameters influencing the assessment of the size and latency of motor evoked potentials (MEP), in normal and pathological conditions, and methods to allow for a ... More

Neuronal Excitability in Memory Allocation: Mechanisms and Consequences  

Alexander D. Jacob, Andrew J. Mocle, Paul W. Frankland, and Sheena A. Josselyn

Online publication date:
Sep 2020
Throughout the brain, sparse ensembles of neurons, termed “engrams,” are responsible for representing events. Engrams are composed of neurons active at the time of an event, and recent ... More

NR4A Transcription Factor Family: Key Regulators of Memory Formation  

Dina P. Matheos and Marcelo A. Wood

Online publication date:
Sep 2020
Memory formation is one of the most important functions of the brain regarding individual identity and survival, as well as propagation of a species. Decades of research at numerous levels ... More

Paired-coil Measures  

Ritsuko Hanajima, Yoshikazu Ugawa, and Vicenzo Di Lazzaro

Effective connectivity between two areas of the human brain can be studied by testing the effects of conditioning stimulation at one site on the effect of test stimulation at another site ... More

Paired-pulse interactions  

Robin F. H. Cash and Ulf Ziemann

Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) techniques provide an opportunity to examine and better understand the excitatory and inhibitory circuitry in the human cortex in health ... More

Pharmacology of TMS measures  

Ulf Ziemann

Application of a single dose of a central nervous system (CNS) active drug with a defined mode of action has been proven useful to explore pharmaco-physiological properties of transcranial ... More