Despite their importance in the reception and distribution of films, translation and accessibility have traditionally been neglected in the film industry. They are regarded as an afterthought, which results in translators being isolated from the creative team and working in conditions that hamper their attempts to maintain the filmmaker’s original vision. As a potential solution to this problem, accessible filmmaking (AFM) aims to integrate translation and accessibility into the production process through the collaboration between the creative team and the translator. This chapter outlines, firstly, the theoretical framework that underlies AFM, drawing on both translation/media accessibility and film studies and incorporating the notion of the global film. It then reviews the application of AFM in the filmmaking industry through the collaboration between accessible filmmakers and directors of translation and access. Finally, it introduces a new engagement-based approach to media accessibility that has resulted from AFM and compares it to the comprehension-based approach that has traditionally been used in this area.
Localization refers to taking a product and making it linguistically and culturally appropriate to the target locale where it will be used and sold. Within global marketing, localization is positioned alongside translation, internationalization, globalization, and standardization. Localization happens at many levels, one of which is translation. In marketing, companies approach their own corporate identities through their different advertising needs and the way they envisage their products, the world, and the various possible locales. In marketing across cultures, the issue of what actually constitutes a culture persists and is generally linked to a geopolitical territory. The advertising and success of a product is subject to both cultural and socio-economic constraints, hence the need to take into account the cultural specificity of each context when designing a marketing strategy.
In Canada, a few groups enjoy explicit constitutional recognition, including certain official language minorities and aboriginals. In light of the constitutional history of Canada, the Supreme Court of Canada affirmed in the Reference re Secession of Quebec that the protection of minorities forms part of the constitutional order in Canada. This article explores bilingual interpretation rules as a component of language rights in Canada. It first outlines the linguistic rights of minorities in Canada and then discusses the historical development of multilingual legislation in the country. The article also considers multilingual statutory interpretation, focusing on the rules of equal authenticity and shared meaning, selective application by jurists, the conflict between language versions, and erroneous applications of the equal authenticity and shared meaning rules. It concludes with a discussion of future challenges in Canadian bilingual jurisprudence as well as the publication of bilingual judgments.
Focusing on the link between law, language, and culture, J. B. White notes that legal translation is a ‘necessarily imperfect process’. This article focuses on challenges to legal translators caused by the inherent incongruity of legal systems, cultures, and languages. It attempts to ‘demystify’ the ‘miracle’ of legal translation, showing how skilled translators with legal expertise and cultural sensitivity use language effectively to compensate for conceptual incongruity by creating ‘terminological bridges’. The article then outlines some of the basics of legal translation, with the main emphasis on the special nature of legal texts, their function, and the degree of accuracy required to achieve intercultural communication for various purposes. It also considers the role of skopos (communicative purpose) in legal translation and considers terminological problems in legally binding instruments. Like comparativists, translators need to use methods of comparative law in their search for potential equivalents and to test their adequacy by comparative conceptual analysis. The article concludes by discussing considerations about the effectiveness of multilingualism.
This article introduces the concept of conference interpreting. It describes the origins and evolution of conference interpreting as a profession. Within the field of translation studies, conference interpreting is among the primary domains of translational activity. It is a modern-day phenomenon and, more importantly, a distinctly professional endeavour. Conference interpreting is a professional communication service rendered in either the simultaneous or the consecutive mode of interpreting in a conference(-like) situation. This article describes the evolution of conference interpreting studies as a discipline and its theoretical and methodological lines of approach. The research issues reviewed in this article include the conference interpreters' qualifications and skills, the settings of their work, the nature and quality of their service, and, the features of the professional community at large. Research on conference interpreting has since become an important domain within the wider and increasingly diverse field of translation studies.
This article introduces the concept of consecutive interpreting, which is associated with the domain of conference interpreting, but it also comes up in connection with liaison interpreting and dialogue interpreting in community-based or public-service settings. It has been practised for thousands of years in the consecutive mode, in which the interpreter speaks after the original speaker has finished. Consecutive interpreting extends across a broad conceptual spectrum, from sentence-by-sentence consecutive or short consecutive, telephone interpreting, to classic consecutive supported by a note-taking technique. Consecutive interpreting is a two-stage process, that is, source-speech comprehension followed by re-expression in another language. Memory is crucial to consecutive interpreting. Consecutive interpreting in interactive discourse situations has been studied not so much as a processing mode but as a communicative activity shaped by, and in turn shaping, the dynamics of cross-cultural encounters.
Robert W. Bennett
Contemporary debates about constitutional interpretation in the United States seem fixated on what is called ‘originalism’, the view that, regardless of when some constitutional issue arises, guidance for resolving it is to be sought in ‘original’ sources, those which accompanied the promulgation of the constitutional language in question. The apparent alternative is ‘living constitutionalism’, in which a large dose of judicial discretion keeps constitutional interpretation in touch with a changing world. This is seen by originalists as relegating ill-defined responsibility to the doubtful authority of the judiciary. Originalists invoke the writtenness of the Constitution, the desirability of stability in the law, specific constitutional provision for amendments as signaling the acceptable mechanism for change, and the tenuous democratic credentials of life-tenured federal judges to depict originalism as the right approach to constitutional interpretation, and living constitutionalism as misbegotten. This article provides an overview of originalism and living constitutionalism. It first discusses constitutional language and original intention before focusing on the summing problem, degrees of generality of language, degrees of generality of intentions, unforeseen problems, and constitutional amendments.
Michael P. Oakes
In recent years a number of authors have made good use of statistical texts in empirical translation studies. These tests are well established in the scientific literature but have only recently been applied to the comparison of original and translated texts for the identification of the characteristics of “translationese.” There has also been interest in the comparison between professional and student translations and between machine and human translation. In this chapter, various statistical tests are examined in the context of real-world empirical studies in translation: analysis of variance and Tukey’s “honestly significant difference” test, the chi-squared test and the G-statistic, and the visualization techniques of hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis. The chapter finishes with a discussion of the linguistic features chosen or found to characterize the original and translated texts.
Sara Laviosa and Sofia Malamatidou
Since their introduction in translation and interpreting studies in the 1990s, computerized corpora have given rise to a substantial body of descriptive and applied research that is contributing to the development of the discipline as a whole. The present chapter surveys a particularly socially relevant domain of corpus use, namely the education of translator trainees in today’s multilingual and technologized language industry. After introducing the main features and ambits of corpus research into translation and interpreting, the present contribution traces the development of corpus use in translator and interpreter education from its introduction in the field in the late 1990s to the present day. In the concluding section the authors pull together the main threads that have been laid out and look to the future.
This article describes the concept of courtroom interpretation. Legal interpreting is a branch of interpreting conducted when speakers of different languages have to communicate in legal or paralegal settings. Each legal system has its own unique court procedures, legal concepts, and terms that sometimes have no equivalent in other languages. This cultural asymmetry of legal systems creates substantial interpreting difficulties. In order to interpret competently, court interpreters must be well versed in legal terminology. The role of the court interpreter is to make communication possible between speakers of different languages. A courtroom interpreter has ethical responsibilities to fulfill. The challenges to courtroom interpreting include lack of bilingual legal dictionaries, obstacles to pragmatic influence etc. Court interpreters require training, in both interpreting skills and court interpreting. Effective courtroom interpreting can only be achieved by the professionalization of interpreters through compulsory education, adequate working conditions, and professional remuneration for effective multilingual dialogue.
Anthony K. Webster
This article argues for the continuing importance of ethnopoetics/cultural poetics in the work of linguists and anthropologists. A heuristic definition of ethnopoetics (or cultural poetics) is given as the various traditions of such recurrent patternings of linguistic forms (and the thwarting of such expectations of such patternings). The continuing relevance of a Hymesian-inspired anthropological philology is noted. After framing the discussion of poetry and poetics as both linguistic and ethnographic questions, this article engages questions of linguistic relativity and its relationship to poetics, as well as poetry and poetics as social practices. Examples of parallelism and metaphor are given and discussed both in relation to their poetic form and to their social work. A final extended illustration is given concerning Navajo poetry as an example of a cultural poetics informed by both linguistics and anthropology. It is argued that research on cultural poetics/ethnopoetics encourages patience and reflection.
Pamela Faber and Pilar León-Araúz
A well-designed terminological knowledge base is a structured repository of linguistic data, which is enriched with metadata and structured according to specific classification schemes and concept-based analysis. There is now no limit to the quantity and type of information in each entry since the digital age has liberated lexicographical and terminological resources from space constraints. More specifically, a terminological knowledge resource for environmental translators should be tailored to the specific needs of users who work with this multifaceted type of specialized text. Accordingly, the type and configuration of the environmental information should reflect the micro- and macrostructural design of the resource and provide frame-like structures in which concepts and terms are dynamically related to others. Designers must also decide how each type should be accessed and in what sequence. The map of the resource can have an underlying conceptual frame that allows users to derive the maximum benefit from it. This chapter provides an overview of the needs of environmental translators and explains how they can be met in the design of a knowledge resource. This is illustrated by the type and number of data fields, their underlying principles, and their mode of visualization.
Translation is a highly technologized profession. This article describes tools and resources associated with the work of translators. These include electronic dictionaries, termbanks, terminology management systems, term-extraction tools, corpora, corpus-processing tools, and translation memory tools and social networking. In contemporary approaches, computer-aided translation is generally set off from machine translation (MT). Electronic dictionaries have been familiar for centuries. Termbanks share a number of similarities with electronic dictionaries. Search results can be displayed in user-definable ways in electronic dictionaries. They can be integrated into common editing environments. A corpus is a collection of texts held in electronic form. A terminology-extraction tool can be optimized to automatically extract candidate terms from a given corpus, using one or both of two basic approaches. Terminology management is about storing, retrieving, and displaying terms and associated data. Although MT may not be displacing human translation, translation memory technology envisages greater automation in the future.
In the European Union, legal discourses involve an unprecedented degree of mediation by translators and filtering through 24 official languages. Combined with a complex array of institutional, political, procedural and supranational factors, it results in an emergence of “Europeanized” parallel varieties of national legal languages—hybrids known as Eurolects. Eurolects have developed a distinct supranational terminology, as well as stylistic and grammatical features, which depart from certain conventions of national languages. With the advent of corpus methods, it has recently become possible to explore the nature of Eurolects empirically on a large scale. This chapter overviews corpus studies into Eurolects, focusing on the development of the idea of Eurolects and their “textual fit” to domestic nontranslated varieties of legal languages.
Kevin Windle and Anthony Pym
This article gives an overview of the evolution of translation studies and practices. Translation for much of its history has existed as a practice without a theory. The history of translation in the Western world is closely bound with the history of religion and propagation of canonical texts, particularly, the Bible. In the biense´ance period, a milestone in the study of translation in Britain came in 1791, when the essay on the Principles of Translation, was published. In the romanticism period, literal renderings became the preferred method. In the early twentieth century, in Soviet Russia, there was much innovative experimentation in arts and literature, and literary translators played active role in it. In the late twentieth century, the contemporary European translation theories are seen as a series of paradigms that question the concept of equivalence. Since about the 1950s, there has been an increasing interest in making translation theory appear scientific.
Cornelis J. W. Baaij
Both the treaties of the European Union (EU) and the secondary legislation from EU institutions are currently issued in twenty-three different language versions. Discrepancies between these versions both jeopardize their equal authenticity, and make a uniform interpretation and application of EU law in all EU Member States more difficult. Yet, discrepancies between language versions have come up in the case law of the European Court of Justice (ECJ). Using a statistical analysis of fifty years of the ECJ's case law, all relevant judgments between 1960 and 2010, this article sheds further light on which interpretive method the ECJ is more likely to use in the event of linguistic discrepancies as an argument to justify its interpretation of EU law. It first discusses the discrepancies between the language versions that impede the multilingual interpretation of EU law. The article then makes use of the so-called ‘legal reasoning’ methodology to analyze the ECJ's case law, and considers the ECJ's use of the teleological approach and the literal approach to discrepancies.
Melissa Allen Heath and Elizabeth A. Cutrer-Párraga
Over 350 languages are spoken in the United States, and over 7,000 known languages are spoken around the world. Considering such linguistic diversity, effectively communicating within and across nations and communities is challenging. This chapter includes several issues to consider when translating and distributing mental health assessment instruments and surveys, gathering and interpreting data from translated instruments, and using the data to change policy and practice. Ultimately, data should inform policy and assist communities/countries in monitoring and tracking progress on mental health issues. A list of resources identifies several critical issues that help inform translation practice across cultures and languages.
Nancy L. Schweda Nicholson
Interpreting language is the focus of this article. Interpretation studies are a comparatively new field of language study. Journals such as Interpreting highlight research studies that look at interpreting from a wide range of perspectives. Currently there is a growing trend in articles and books that focus on quantitative as well as qualitative data. Moreover, although writings in the period from 1952 to 1988 are primarily by French authors, recent work provides evidence of an increasing internationalization in the field. There has also been a growing tendency toward collaboration among interpreting researchers and scholars working in related fields. Such cooperation is typified by the interdisciplinary efforts of Kurz and Petsche. Court interpreting publications also deal with linguistic challenges as well as analytical tools. Paulsen Christensen discusses judges' use of direct and indirect speech in Danish courtroom proceedings in which interpreters facilitate communication. The twenty-first century holds much promise for those who strive to better understand interpretations.
Brian H. Bix
Law is guidance through language, whether the language of statutes, judicial decisions, constitutional provisions, contracts, or wills. It is therefore not surprising that lawyers, judges, and legal commentators have sought whatever assistance they could find from other fields which deal with the meaning and interpretation of words: including literary theory, linguistics, and semiotics. Assistance has also been sought from philosophy of language, and the various philosophical writers on the deeper understanding of truth, meaning, and reference. However, at the end of the day, it is not clear that any of these searches have taught the legal profession useful new knowledge or methods of knowing. This article offers an overview of some of the attempts to use philosophy of language to alter or resolve questions of legal interpretation. It first considers the determinacy and indeterminacy of law, and then looks at H. L. A. Hart and the ‘open texture’ of language. The article also discusses intentionalism, originalism, textualism, and plain meaning with respect to interpretation of the U.S. Constitution, and concludes by outlining the links between politics, law, and philosophy.
Legal interpreting covers a broad spectrum of interpreting activities related to law. This chapter takes a sociopolitical point of view to discuss interpreting in legal matters in judicial as well as extrajudicial settings. Based on international regulations and democratic ideals, it shows the importance of interpreting for equal access to law, with a focus on the possibilities and scope of action available to interpreters rather than the restrictions. By presenting the legal activities and text types that occur, the chapter develops strategies for interpreters for use in different settings and situations to ensure the best possible communication for all participants. In this context, the chapter also addresses the demand for multipartiality and equiproximity between the interpreter and the other participants in the communication process.