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Adjudication Systems  

Emma Lees

Print publication date:
May 2019
Online publication date:
Jul 2019
This chapter examines the role of adjudication systems in handling environmental disputes. It first considers the role of the judiciary in relation to the environment and its place within ... More

Africa  

Louis J. Kotzé

Print publication date:
Aug 2021
Online publication date:
Dec 2021
This chapter reflects on examples where some domestic and regional African courts have engaged directly and indirectly with international environmental law (IEL). Generally speaking, ... More

Armed Conflict and the Environment  

Carl Bruch, Cymie R. Payne, and Britta Sjöstedt

Print publication date:
Aug 2021
Online publication date:
Dec 2021
This chapter looks at how the concern for the environment in relation to armed conflict can be addressed from several bodies of international law. These diverse bodies of law emerged ... More

The Assessment of Environmental Impact  

Neil Craik

Print publication date:
May 2019
Online publication date:
Jul 2019
This chapter examines the role of environmental assessment (EA) in mediating between the scientific, political, and normative elements within environmental decision-making. It first ... More

Atmosphere and Outer Space  

Ian H. Rowlands

Print publication date:
Aug 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
What is ‘atmosphere’ and what is ‘outer space’? The term ‘atmosphere’ is sometimes used interchangeably with ‘air’. Moreover, it is often assumed that ‘outer space’ is simply the area above ... More

Atmospheric Pollution  

Massimiliano Montini

Print publication date:
May 2019
Online publication date:
Jul 2019
This chapter examines atmospheric pollution legislation from a comparative perspective. It begins with a discussion of the definition and legal boundaries relevant to atmospheric pollution, ... More

Australia  

Douglas Fisher

Print publication date:
May 2019
Online publication date:
Jul 2019
This chapter examines the structure and substance of environmental law in Australia. It begins with a discussion of how powers are distributed in environmental governance in Australia, ... More

Aviation and Maritime Transport  

Beatriz Martinez Romera

Print publication date:
Aug 2021
Online publication date:
Dec 2021
This chapter focuses on the main environmental issues relating to aviation and maritime transport, and the key international legal and regulatory frameworks and tools in place to address ... More

Biological Resources  

Rosemary Rayfuse

Print publication date:
Aug 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
In the past century, a large number of bilateral, regional, and global agreements have been adopted relating to the protection, preservation, conservation, and management of the Earth's ... More

Brazil  

Antonio Herman Benjamin and Nicholas Bryner

Print publication date:
May 2019
Online publication date:
Jul 2019
This chapter examines Brazil’s environmental law. It first provides an overview of Brazil’s constitutional structure as it relates to federalism and the environment, taking into account how ... More

Brazilian Climate Change Law  

Karen Alvarenga Oliveira

Print publication date:
Mar 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter examines the climate change policy of Brazil. In 2010 at the Sixteenth Conference of Parties in Cancún, Brazil announced its voluntary national target of significantly reducing ... More

Business  

Steven R. Ratner

Print publication date:
Aug 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Business has a central role in international environmental law. Both treaties and treatises regard private economic actors as secondary players, and see states as the overwhelmingly ... More

Business and Industry  

Benjamin J. Richardson and Beate Sjåfjell

Print publication date:
Aug 2021
Online publication date:
Dec 2021
This chapter studies how, in the study of international environmental law, business corporations are typically viewed as actors under the auspices of various regulatory regimes developed by ... More

Canada  

Stepan Wood

Print publication date:
May 2019
Online publication date:
Jul 2019
This chapter surveys Canadian environmental law, including the allocation of environmental powers, the choice of regulatory models, and the implementation of environmental laws. Notable ... More

Carbon Capture and Storage  

Richard Macrory

Print publication date:
Jul 2017
Online publication date:
Jan 2017
The capture and long-term storage of carbon dioxide from power plants and other industrial installations may prove a key technology in climate change abatement strategies. Regulatory ... More

Carbon Leakage and the Migration of Private CO2 Emitters to other Jurisdictions  

Andrew Shoyer, Jung-ui Sul, and Colette van der Ven

Print publication date:
Mar 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter examines the phenomenon of carbon leakage, which is an increase in carbon emissions as a result of businesses moving to other states without carbon reduction measures. Pursuant ... More

The Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico  

David Freestone and Clive Schofield

Print publication date:
Mar 2015
Online publication date:
Jun 2016
This chapter assesses the legal regime of the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. It first examines regional maritime claims before reviewing marine activities, environment, and resources ... More

The Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico  

David Freestone and Clive Schofield

Print publication date:
Mar 2015
Online publication date:
Jun 2016
This chapter assesses the legal regime of the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. It first examines regional maritime claims before reviewing marine activities, environment, and resources ... More

A Cartography of Environmental Education  

Amy Cutter-McKenzie-Knowles, Marianne Logan, Ferdousi Khatun, and Karen Malone

Print publication date:
May 2019
Online publication date:
Jul 2019
This chapter presents a historical and policy cartography of environmental education. It begins with a brief historical overview of significant environmental education initiatives, focusing ... More

A Cartography of Environmental Human Rights  

Louis J. Kotzé and Erin Daly

Print publication date:
May 2019
Online publication date:
Jul 2019
This chapter presents a cartography of environmental human rights, with particular emphasis on the current and potential contribution of human rights in augmenting global environmental ... More

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