Stefan Mainka, Ralph Spintge, and Michael H. Thaut
Music in the acute medical setting or in neurological rehabilitation is used functionally to facilitate and target specific therapeutic goals. Neurologic music therapy (NMT) and music medicine are described as effective evidence-based treatment approaches in sensorimotor and cognitive rehabilitation, as well as in therapy for acute and chronic pain. There is good clinical evidence for NMT techniques in sensorimotor rehabilitation for various diagnoses such as stroke, Parkinson’s, or traumatic brain injury. Music has also been shown to be an effective medium in the treatment of pain. The direct influence on acute pain is getting more and more attention in the field of surgery. Patients with chronic pain require specially designed and sequential therapeutic strategies. The therapeutic mechanisms for NMT and music medicine are becoming more and more understood, so that the treatment techniques can be refined to meet medical needs in an optimal way.