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1968  

Maud Anne Bracke

Print publication date:
Jan 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
Around 1968 communism expanded as a global movement, especially in the developing world, while hitting a crisis of legitimation in Europe. In the Western world the late 1960s saw young ... More

1989  

Matthias Middell

Print publication date:
Jan 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
The essay argues that the story of 1989 can be told either as a narrow or a wide story. The narrow story focuses on the end of communism, the unification of Germany, and the subsequent ... More

Abolition, Legitimate Commerce, and Christianity in Nigeria  

Ayodeji Olukoju

Print publication date:
Apr 2022
Online publication date:
Mar 2022
The history of Nigeria in the nineteenth century was dominated by the collapse of Old Oyo, the rise of the Sokoto Caliphate in the north and Ibadan in the southwest, the abolition of the ... More

Africa  

Elizabeth Schmidt

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Jan 2013
This chapter examines the impact of the Cold War on Africa. It explains that while Africa is the least-known Cold War battleground, the United States, the Soviet Union, China, and Cuba ... More

An Afrocentric Overview of Education, Health, and Welfare Service in Twenty-First-Century Nigeria  

Jamaine M. Abidogun

Print publication date:
Apr 2022
Online publication date:
Mar 2022
This chapter uses the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Human Development Indicators to demonstrate where Nigeria, as an African nation-state, depends on African ... More

After the Fear was Over? What Came After Dictatorships in Spain, Greece, and Portugal  

Helen Graham and Alejandro Quiroga

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
What Spain, Greece, and Portugal have in common in the twentieth century is the manner in which their internal processes of change – rural to urban, agrarian to industrial – were intervened ... More

The Aftermath of War  

Glenda Sluga

Print publication date:
Oct 2010
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Fascism was conceived amid the disorder associated with the transition from war to peace. The war shaped a predilection for the resort to violence, and disrespect for the practices of civil ... More

Agriculture, Environment, and Sustainable Development in Nigeria  

Chima J. Korieh

Print publication date:
Apr 2022
Online publication date:
Mar 2022
Agriculture is the most critical economic activity in every society. It has historically remained the source of food that sustains the population and a source of wealth accumulation. This ... More

Annus Mirabilis: 1989 and German Unification  

David F. Patton

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article focuses on the wonder years enjoyed by Germany in 1989 that followed the great German unification. In 1989–1990, the two Germanies underwent a series of remarkable changes that ... More

Archaeology, Linguistics, and Early Histories of Nigeria  

Constanze Weise

Print publication date:
Apr 2022
Online publication date:
Mar 2022
The chapter provides a brief survey of the major research developments in archaeology, linguistics, and the early history of Nigeria. It focuses on some important cultural areas, such as ... More

Architecture, Infrastructure, and the Built Environment in Nigeria  

Toyin Falola

Print publication date:
Apr 2022
Online publication date:
Mar 2022
Architectural and infrastructural development engenders the built environment crucial to the day-to-day running of a country. Even more importantly, both are essential to the economic ... More

Brothers, Strangers and Enemies: Ethno-Nationalism and the Demise of Communist Yugoslavia  

Cathie Carmichael

Print publication date:
May 2012
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
In the forty-five years after World War II that Communist Yugoslavia existed, judgements as to the success of the experiment differed widely. Unlike the first royalist Yugoslav state, which ... More

Capital, Labor, and State: Rethinking the Political Economy of Oil in the Gulf  

Adam Hanieh

Print publication date:
Nov 2020
Online publication date:
Aug 2015
The Middle East’s pivotal position in a hydrocarbon-based global capitalism carries enormous ramifications for the region and the Gulf Arab states in particular. This chapter aims to ... More

Case Study: Field Notes on Catastrophe: Reflections on the September 11, 2001, Oral History Memory and Narrative Project  

Mary Marshall Clark

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article focuses on the catastrophe of September 11, 2001; its memory sustained through oral history and captured in narratives. The purpose of this article is twofold: to explore the ... More

Case Study: Rome's House of Memory and History: The Politics of Memory and Public Institutions  

Alessandro Portelli

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article centers around the case study of Rome's House of Memory and History to understand the politics of memory and public institutions. This case study is about the organization and ... More

The Cold War in Southeast Asia  

Ang Cheng Guan

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Jan 2013
This chapter examines the history of the Cold War in Southeast Asia. It explains that the onset of the Cold War coincided with nationalist struggles and decolonization, and explains why ... More

Cold War Strategies/Power and Culture—East: Sources of Soviet Conduct Reconsidered  

Vladislav Zubok

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Jan 2013
This chapter examines the root motives behind the Soviet struggle against the West and the paradigm of Soviet international behavior related to the Cold War. It suggests that decolonization ... More

The Colonial Administration of Nigeria  

Olufemi Vaughan

Print publication date:
Apr 2022
Online publication date:
Mar 2022
The chapter examines the implementation of colonial policies in the Nigerian region from the turn of the twentieth century to the middle of the century when Nigeria gained independence from ... More

Colonial and Postcolonial Historiography of Nigeria  

Sati U. Fwatshak

Print publication date:
Apr 2022
Online publication date:
Mar 2022
This chapter discusses colonial and postcolonial Nigerian historiography based on sampling the country’s extensive historical literature. It highlights the Eurocentric orientation, ... More

Colonial Economies of Nigeria  

Steven Pierce

Print publication date:
Apr 2022
Online publication date:
Mar 2022
The history of Nigeria’s colonial economy is intertwined with its political history. Colonization brought to power a government determined to “develop” the country by making it an exporter ... More

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