Thomas J. Holt and Adam M. Bossler
Criminological research exploring the phenomena of cybercrime and technology-enabled offending has increased dramatically over the last two decades, examining changes in offender behavior, victim characteristics, and the applicability of existing theories for these crimes. There is no systematic assessment of this literature or the gaps in our knowledge that require careful measurement and analysis. This study explores the evolution of the termcybercrimeand the range of activities that fall into this category of offending, including computer hacking, malware, piracy, fraud, pornography, prostitution, cyberbullying, cyberstalking, and cyberterrorism. The challenges inherent in measuring these offenses and pertinent theoretical and empirical issues are examined in depth.
Elżbieta M. Goździak
This essay examines the challenges and dilemmas involved in conducting empirical research on human trafficking, particularly studies involving survivors of human trafficking. The discussion concentrates on cross-border trafficking of adults and children for labor and sexual exploitation. Issues of sex and gender, agency and vulnerability, and criminal justice responses are explored; historical antecedents of contemporary legal frameworks related to trafficking and smuggling as well as the relationships between smuggling and trafficking are highlighted; and the gendered dimension of the anti-trafficking discourse is emphasized. The essay concludes with a call for future research that goes beyond advocacy-focused studies that discuss women trafficked for sexual exploitation to include a broader array of issues and populations and an emphasis on empirical data and research.
This chapter outlines how theories of environmental criminology can inform our understanding of maritime piracy and assesses empirically how the incidence of maritime piracy is influenced by opportunities created by a maritime setting. The chapter is organized into three sections. The first section after the introduction discusses different periods of piracy, spanning ancient times, the Middle Ages, and up to present day. While the factors contributing to piracy in each age vary, there is a common explanation for how piracy has been quashed: establishing effective place management in the maritime realm. The second section focuses on some key constructs in environmental criminology and illustrates how they operate in a maritime setting. The concluding section deals with patterns that have been observed in maritime piracy in recent times.