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Changes in TMS measures induced by repetitive TMS  

Joseph Classen, Ying-Zu Huang, and Christoph Zrenner

Commonly used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protocols, including regular rTMS, intermittent and continuous theta-burst stimulation (TBS) and quadripulse stimulation ... More

Changes in TMS measures of cortical excitability induced by transcranial direct and alternating current stimulation  

Michael A. Nitsche, Walter Paulus, and Gregor Thut

Brain stimulation with weak electrical currents (transcranial electrical stimulation, tES) is known already for about 60 years as a technique to generate modifications of cortical ... More

Clinical utility of TMS-EMG measures  

Robert Chen and Kai-Hsiang Stanley Chen

This chapter focuses on the utility of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for clinical diagnosis and follow-up. It first introduces the methods to measure corticospinal excitability, ... More

Combining transcranial brain stimulation and PET/SPECT molecular imaging  

Sang Soo Cho and Antonio P. Strafella

Transcranial brain stimulation (TMS) was introduced in 1985 by Barker and his colleagues. Since then, further improvements in technology have allowed additional applications and new ... More

Computational methods for dosimetry  

Axel Thielscher, Kristoffer H. Madsen, Gary E. Strangman, and Bradley E. Treeby

Computational methods for dosimetry allow estimating and optimizing the spatial distribution and strength of the induced fields and waves in the brain, based on detailed models of the head ... More

Computational neurostimulation  

Ainslie Johnstone, James J. Bonaiuto, and Sven Bestmann

Computational neurostimulation is the use of biologically grounded computational models to investigate the mechanism of action of brain stimulation and predict the impact of transcranial ... More

A conceptional framework for combining brain mapping and brain stimulation  

Anke Ninija Karabanov and Hartwig Roman Siebner

Here, we introduce a conceptual framework for studies that combine non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) with neuroimaging. We outline the type of neuroscientific questions ... More

Cortical silent period  

Markus Kofler, Ulf Ziemann, and Vasilios K. Kimiskidis

The cortical silent period (cSP) refers to a period of suppression or silencing of ongoing electromyographic (EMG) activity during voluntary muscle contraction induced by a magnetic ... More

Ethical and Legal Issues in Transcranial Stimulation for Cognitive Enhancement  

Anita S. Jwa

Transcranial stimulation has recently been gaining momentum as a promising tool for cognitive enhancement. Like other emerging biomedical technologies, however, the promises of transcranial ... More

Face Processing and TMS  

David Pitcher

Faces are rich sources of social information that simultaneously convey someone’s identity, attentional focus, and emotional state. Humans process this wealth of socially relevant ... More

Motor threshold, motor evoked potential, central motor conduction time  

Sein H. Schmidt and Stephan A. Brandt

In this chapter, we survey parameters influencing the assessment of the size and latency of motor evoked potentials (MEP), in normal and pathological conditions, and methods to allow for a ... More

Paired-coil Measures  

Ritsuko Hanajima, Yoshikazu Ugawa, and Vicenzo Di Lazzaro

Effective connectivity between two areas of the human brain can be studied by testing the effects of conditioning stimulation at one site on the effect of test stimulation at another site ... More

Paired-pulse interactions  

Robin F. H. Cash and Ulf Ziemann

Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) techniques provide an opportunity to examine and better understand the excitatory and inhibitory circuitry in the human cortex in health ... More

Pharmacology of TMS measures  

Ulf Ziemann

Application of a single dose of a central nervous system (CNS) active drug with a defined mode of action has been proven useful to explore pharmaco-physiological properties of transcranial ... More

Physics and biophysics fundamentals of transcranial stimulation  

Boshuo Wang, Aman S. Aberra, Warren M. Grill, and Angel V. Peterchev

Transcranial stimulation induces or modulates neural activity in the brain through basic physical and biophysical processes. Transcranial electrical stimulation and transcranial magnetic ... More

rTMS and nondeclarative learning  

Michael V. Freedberg and Eric M. Wassermann

Nondeclarative learning and memory involve acquiring and retaining skills or habits and include subtypes, such as procedural learning, priming, and classical conditioning. Animal studies, ... More

State-dependent studies on perception and cognition  

Juha Silvanto

Neuronal response to an external stimulus is affected not only by stimulus properties, but also by the baseline activation state; this is referred to as state-dependency. Leveraging this ... More

TMS in working memory research  

Jeffrey S. Johnson, Eva Feredoes, and Bradley R. Postle

This chapter provides a broad overview of research focused on the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), both alone and together with neural recording modalities such as magnetic ... More

TMS measures explored by EEG recordings  

Risto J. Ilmoniemi, Nigel C. Rogasch, and Silvia Casarotto

This chapter describes the use of electroencephalography (EEG) to measure neuronal activity evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We discuss the major research and clinical ... More

Transcranial brain stimulation and EEG/MEG  

Til Ole Bergmann, Leo Tomasevic, and Hartwig Roman Siebner

Noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct or alternating current stimulation (TDCS/TACS) can be ... More