This article discusses political parties in New York. The continued importance of these parties at the outset of the twenty-first century is at one level a testament to their successful resistance to general Progressive Era efforts to purge partisanship from American state and local governance. New York finds a place for “third parties” in its electoral system. Third parties have a great array of tactical options which in sum add to the complexity of New York politics at every level. Electoral trends and new legislative-centered party organizations have increased the independence of the legislative parties from the governor. While New York's parties are generally regarded as cohesive and different, there are tensions within each party that lead to some moderation of the general policy stances. The specifics of New York election law nurtured the emergence, and support the continuation, of a near-unique two-and-a-half party system.