Abstract and Keywords
This chapter is concerned with the contemporary impact of the biomedical sciences on life expectancy and how the so-called life-extension project. A promise of more or less indefinite human survival or the end of aging represents a critical challenge, not just to religious assumptions about life, aging and death but to traditional moral assumptions about the just distribution of resources in society. Medical consumption is simply a subset of general consumption, and the idea of living forever is central to modern secular lifestyles. The tensions between religion and medicine, and therefore the nature of “medical secularization,” can be understood by recognizing that many critical problems for the Christian churches in modernity are raised by questions about the changing status of the human body. As modern societies are driven by technological and scientific advances, the choices that confront humans fall broadly into two camps, namely posthumanism and transhumanism.
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