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date: 17 April 2021

Abstract and Keywords

Over the past 20 years, research on the development of emotions and interest in the emotion–cognition interface has blossomed. Coinciding with this growth has been research on the neural circuitry and development of two basic motivational/emotion states: one brought on by threat and danger (i.e., fear) and one resulting from actively pursuing or receiving reward (i.e., reward/joy). The current chapter reviews traditional approaches to thinking about emotional development and temperament in infants and children. It then reviews the neuroscience work associated with fear and reward with a focus on the development of these systems. A particular emphasis will be placed on how this research and the examination of gene X environment interactions can influence research in personality and emotion development.

Keywords: emotion, personality, temperament, fear, reward, neuroimaging, gene × environment, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex

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